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[:RU]10 astronomical instruments of the past[:]

[:RU]Heavenly bodies interested people from time immemorial. Even before the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Copernicus, astronomers have made repeated attempts to find out the laws and the laws of motion of planets and stars, and was used for this special tools.

Instrumentation ancient astronomers were so complex that modern scientists took years to understand their device.

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1. Calendar of Warren Field

Although the country is deepening on the Warren discovered from the air in 1976, but in 2004 it was determined that an ancient lunar calendar. As scientists believe, calendar, found about 10 000 years.

It looks like the recesses 12 located on an arc of 54 meters. Each well in sync with the lunar month in the calendar, and adjusted for the lunar phase.

It is also surprising that the calendar Warren Field, which was built 6000 years before Stonehenge is oriented to the point of sunrise at the winter solstice.


1. Calendar of Warren Field, astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



2. Sextant Al Khujandi in painting

We have very little information on the Abu Mahmoud Hamid ibn al-Khidr al-Khujand, except that he was a mathematician and astronomer who lived in what is now Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. We also know that he has created one of the largest astronomical instruments in the 9-10 centuries.

His sextant was made in the form of a mural, located on the 60-degree arc between the two inner walls of the building. This huge 43-meter arc was divided into degrees. Moreover, each degree was with a jeweler’s precision is divided into 360 parts, which made tremendous fresco accurate solar calendar.

Above the arc Al Khujandi located domed ceiling with a hole in the middle through which the sun’s rays fall on an ancient sextant.


2. Sextant Al Khujandi in painting astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



3. Volvelly and zodiac people

In Europe at the turn of the 14th century, scientists and physicians to use a strange sort of astronomical instruments — volvelly. They looked like a few sheets of parchment with a round hole in the center, overlapping.

This allows you to move the circles to get all the necessary data — from the phases of the moon to the position of the Sun in the zodiac. Archaic gadget in addition to its primary function as a symbol of status — only the rich could get volvelloy.

Also Medieval physicians believed that every part of the human body is controlled by its constellation. For example, the head responsible for Aries, and genitals — Scorpio. Therefore diagnostirovki volvelly doctors used to calculate the current position of the moon and sun.

Unfortunately, volvelly it was quite fragile, therefore retained very few of these ancient astronomical instruments.


3. Volvelly and zodiac people astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



4. Ancient sundial

Today sundial serve except to decorate the garden lawns. But once they were needed for time tracking and movement of the sun across the sky. One of the oldest sundial were found in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt.

They date back to 1550 — 1070 years BC and represent a round piece of limestone with a painted on it in a semicircle (divided into 12 sectors), and a hole in the middle, into which the rod casts a shadow.

Soon after the discovery of the Egyptian sundial like were found in Ukraine. They were buried with the man, who died 3200 — 3300 years ago. Thanks hours Ukrainian scientists have learned that civilization Srubna had knowledge of geometry and know how to calculate longitude and latitude


4. Ancient sundial astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



5. Heavenly Nebra sky disk

Named after the German city where it was discovered in 1999, «Heaven Nebra sky disk» is the oldest image of the cosmos ever found by man. The disc was buried next to the chisel, two axes, two swords and two-Mail Bracers about 3,600 years ago.

In the bronze disk covered with a layer of patina were gold inlays depicting the sun, moon and stars of the constellation Orion, Andromeda and Cassiopeia. No one knows who made the drive, but the position of the stars indicates that the creators were located on the same latitude as the Nebra


5. Heavenly Nebra sky disk astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



6. Astronomical complex chankillo

Ancient Astronomical Observatory chankillo in Peru is so complicated that its true purpose was discovered only in 2007 by a computer program designed to align the solar panels.

13 towers in the complex are built in a straight line length of 300 meters along the hill. Initially, scientists thought that chankillo — fortifications, but the fort was incredibly bad place because it had no defensive advantages, no running water, no food sources.

But then, archaeologists realized that one of the towers to the point of watching the sunrise at the summer solstice, and the other — to the point of sunrise on the winter solstice. Built about 2300 years ago, the tower is the oldest solar observatory in the Americas. In this ancient calendar it is still possible to determine the day of the year with a maximum of two days of uncertainty.

Unfortunately, a huge solar calendar of chankillo — the only trace of civilization builders of the complex, which preceded the Incas more than 1000 years


6. Astronomical complex chankillo astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts
That’s about this building you can read more here: Thirteen towers chankillo (Chankillo) 



7. Star Atlas Huygens

Star Atlas Huygens, also known as «Poetica Astronomica» was one of the first works with images of the constellations. Although controversial author of the atlas, it is sometimes attributed to Gaius Julius Hyginus (Roman writer, 64 BC — 17 AD). Others argue that the work has similarities with the writings of Ptolemy.

In any case, when Poetica Astronomica was reprinted in 1482, she became the first printed works, which were shown to the constellations and the myths connected with them.

While other atlases provide more specific mathematical information that could be used for navigation, Poetica Astronomica was a more bizarre, the literary interpretation of the stars and their history.


7. Star Atlas Huygens astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



8. Celestial Globe

Celestial Globe appeared at a time when astronomers believe that the stars move across the sky around the earth. Celestial globes, which were created to display this celestial sphere, began creating the ancient Greeks, and the first globe in a form similar to modern globes, was created by a German scientist Johannes Schöner.

At the moment, preserved only two celestial globe Schöner, which are real works of art depicting the constellations in the night sky. The oldest surviving example of a celestial globe dated to about 370 BC


8. Celestial Globe astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



9. armillary sphere.

Armillary sphere — an astronomical instrument, in which several rings surround a central point — was a distant relative of the celestial globe.

There were two different types of areas — observation and demonstration. The first scientists who have used these areas was Ptolemy.

With this tool, you can determine the equatorial or ecliptic coordinates of celestial bodies. Along with the astrolabe, an armillary sphere was used for navigation by sailors for centuries.


9. armillary sphere.  astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts



10. El Caracol, Chichen Itza

Observatory El Caracol at Chichen Itza was built between 415 and 455 AD Observatory was very unusual — whereas most astronomical instruments have been set up to monitor the movement of the stars or the sun, El Caracol (translated as «snail») was built to observe the movement of Venus.

For the Maya, Venus was sacred — literally everything in their religion based on the cult of the planet. El Caracol Besides the fact that the observatory was also a temple of God Quetzalcoatl.


10. El Caracol, Chichen Itza astronomy, history, incredible, ancestors, facts

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