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[:RU]People who do not sleep[:]

[:RU]At the river Este Brazilian Indian tribe lives extraordinary feasts. With the unique way of life and their faith. Writer and former missionary Daniel Everett lived among the feasts 30 years!

They do not know how to count — even to one. They live here and now and make plans for the future. Past them is irrelevant. They do not know any hours or days, or in the morning or night, and even more so, of the daily routine. They eat when hungry and sleep only fitfully for half an hour, considering that long sleep takes power.

He is unknown private property and do not care for all that is of value to the modern civilized man. They do not know anxiety, fears and prejudices that plagued 99 percent of the world’s population.

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People who do not sleep.

What people say to each other, going to bed? In different cultures wishes heard, of course, different, but they all express the speaker’s hope that his opponent will sleep sweet dream of pink butterflies and wake up in the morning fresh and full of energy. In pirahski the «Good Night» sounds like «Just do not try to sleep! There is everywhere a snake! »

Feasts believe that sleep is harmful. First, sleep makes you weak. Secondly, in a dream you would like to die and to wake up a little bit the other person. The problem is not that this new person you do not like — you just stop being yourself, if you become sleep too long and often. And, third, the snakes and the truth here in bulk. So feasts do not sleep at night. Doze fitfully, for 20-30 minutes, leaning against the wall, or curled palm hut under a tree. And the rest of the time talking, laughing, master anything, dancing around bonfires and play with children and dogs. Nevertheless, the dream slowly modifies feasts — any of them remember that earlier in his stead were some other people.

«Those were much smaller, were not able to have sex, and even fed milk from the breast. And then those people are somewhere gone, and now instead of them — I do. And if I do not sleep for a long time, it may not disappear. Finding the focus is not turned back, and I changed, I take myself another name … «On average, feasts change the name of every 6-7 years, and for every age they have their appropriate names, so that the name can always say, it comes to a child, adolescent, boy, man or old man

 

 

 

People with no tomorrow.

Perhaps it is the fabric of life in which the night’s sleep does not share the day with the inevitability of a metronome, feasts allowed to set a very strange relationship with the category of time. They do not know what «tomorrow» and what is «today», and also badly oriented concept of «past» and «future.» So, no calendars, time accounts and other contingent feasts do not know. So they never think about the future, they just do not know how to do it.

Everett first visited feasts in 1976, when about feasts were not known. And linguist missionary ethnographer felt the first shock when I saw that the feasts do not make food stocks. Generally. To the tribe, in fact, leading the primitive way of life, do not care about the day to come — so it is impossible for all the canons. But the fact is that feasting is not hoard food, ou just catch it and eat (or do not get caught and do not eat, if hunting and fishing happiness they change).

When there is no food feasts, they refer to this phlegmatic. He do not understand why there every day, and even several times. They eat no more than twice a day, and often organize themselves fasting days, even when a lot of food in the village.

 

 

 

 

People without numbers.

For a long time missionary organizations have suffered a fiasco, trying to reason with the heart feasts and send them to the Lord. No, feasts pleasantly greeted representatives of the Catholic and Protestant missionary organizations, happy to hide their nakedness beautiful donated shorts and looked ate canned stewed cans. But this communication actually ends.

No one could understand the language of feasts. Therefore, the Evangelical Church of the United States has done the smart thing: to send young but talantivogo linguist. Everett was ready for that language will be difficult, but he was wrong: «This language was not complex, it was unique. Nothing like the world is no longer found
«There are only seven consonants and three vowels. Even more problems with vocabulary. Pronouns feasts do not know and if they need to show in question the difference between «I», «you» and «they» are feasts ineptly pronouns who use their neighbors, the Tupi Indians (the only people with whom feasts somehow contact)
Verbs and nouns they are not particularly separated and general language norms familiar to us here, it seems, drowned as unnecessary. For example, the feasts do not understand the meaning of the concept of «one.» Here badgers, crows, dogs understand and feasts — not. For them, it is so complex philosophical category that anyone who tries to tell feasts that it is, at the same time can recite the theory of relativity.

Account numbers and they do not know, doing all the two concepts: «few» and «many.» Two, three and four piranhas — a few, but six — have clearly much. And what is a piranha? It’s just a piranha. Simply explain why we need Russian articles before the words than to explain why feasts considered piranhas, if the piranha, which is not to be considered. Therefore feasts never believe that they are — a small nation. Their 300 people, and it’s certainly a lot. About 7 billion to say to them is useless: 7 billion — is too much. You a lot, and we mngogo, it’s just wonderful.

 

 

 

People without courtesy.

«Hello», «How are you?», «Thank you», «Goodbye», «sorry», «Please» — a mass of words people use big world, to show how well they relate to each other. None of these feasts are not used. They are without it and just love each other and have no doubt that all the surrounding priori glad to see them. Politeness — a side-child mutual distrust — feeling that feasts, according to Everett, denied completely.

 

People without shame.

Feasts do not understand what a shame, guilt or resentment. If Haaiohaaa dropped the fish in the water is bad. No fish, no dinner. But where does Haaiohaaa? He’s just dropped the fish into the water. If a small Kiihioa pushed Okiohkiaa, it is bad because Okiohkiaa broke his leg and it should be treated. But it happened because it happened, that’s all.
Even children whose smallness here is not abused and were not ashamed. They can inform you that missed the coals of fire foolish child playing on the hoard, that he fell into the river, but do not know how to scold feasts.
If the chest does not take the baby the mother’s breast — so no one will be forced to feed him: he knows better why he Do not eat. If a woman pushed to the river to give birth, she can not give birth and the third day announce yelling forest — means it does not want to give birth to the fact, and wants to die. There is no need to go out there and try to dissuade her to do it. Well, the husband can still go out there — suddenly he find solid arguments. But why trying to run a white man with strange iron pieces in the box?

 

 

 

People who see more.

At feasts surprisingly little rituals and religious beliefs. Banquets know that they like all living things — the children of the forest. The forest is full of secrets … not even the forest — a universe devoid of the laws of logic and order. In the forest inhabited by many ghosts. There go all the dead. Therefore, the forest — it’s scary.
But fear feasts — it is not the fear of Europeans. When we are afraid, we feel bad. Feasts, however, consider the fear of a very strong feeling, not without properly to the charm. We can say that they are afraid of love.
Once Everett woke up this morning I saw that the whole village crowded together on the beach. It turned out that came to mind, who wanted something to warn feasts. Out on the beach, Everett discovered that the crowd standing around the empty place, and frightened, but lively with this empty space talking. At the words: «There is no one! I do not see anything «- Everett replied that he did not put to see, as it is the spirit came to feasts. And if he wants to Everett, that’s when it will be sent to the personal spirit.

 

 

People without God.

All of the above made ​​it impossible target for feasts missionersoky work. The idea of one God, for example, skidded among them for the reason that the notion of «one» feasts, as already mentioned, are not compatible. Posts that someone had created, also perceived feasts puzzled. Wow, such a great and such a stupid man, but do not know how people are doing.
The story of Jesus Christ, translated into pirahsky also did not look too convincing. The concept of «age», «time» and «history» for feasts empty phrase. Hearing about a very kind man, whom evil people nailed to the tree with nails, feasts Eferetta asked if he had seen it himself. No? Did Eferett man who has seen this Christ? Also no? Then how can he know what it was?

Living among these small, half-starved, never sleeping, totally calm, constantly laughing, he came to the conclusion that a person is much more complex being than the Bible says, and religion does not make us better or happier. Only years later, he realized that he needed to learn from the feasts, not naobrot.

 

 

We white people have an amazing «talent» — brazenly invade supposedly undeveloped territory and to impose its own rules, customs and religion. World history of colonization — a clear confirmation. Still, one day, somewhere on the edge of the earth, discovered a tribe of people who have not succumbed to the missionary and educational activities, as this activity seemed to them worthless and utterly unconvincing.

American preacher and part-ethnographer and linguist Daniel Everett in 1977, arrived in the Amazon jungle to carry the word of God. His goal was to talk about the Bible to those who did not know about it — to instruct on the right path and godless savages. Instead, the missionary met the people living in such harmony with the surrounding world, which they themselves have paid him in his faith, and not vice versa.

Portuguese gold prospectors first discovered 300 years ago, the tribe feasts lives in four villages in the area of ​​the river Este, a tributary of the Amazon. And thanks to an American who has dedicated years of his life studying their way of life and language, it has acquired worldwide fame.

The story of Jesus Christ made no impression on the Indian feasts. The idea that a missionary really believe the story about the man whom he had never seen, to show them the height of absurdity.

Dan Everett, «I was only 25. Then I was fervently religious man. He was ready to die for their faith. He was ready to do everything that it requires. Then I understood that other people impose their beliefs — it’s the same colonization, colonization only at the level of beliefs and ideas. I have come to tell them about God and salvation to those people could go to heaven and not to hell. But I met special people, for which most of the things that were important to me, did not matter. They could not understand why I have decided that I have the right to tell them how to live. »

 

 

 

«Quality of life was in many ways better than most religious people I knew. I found the world of the Indians is very inspiring and a good «- says Everett.

But not just a philosophy of life feasts shaken the value system of the young scientist. Aboriginal language was so different from all other known language groups, which literally turned the traditional idea of ​​the fundamentals of linguistics. «Their language is not as difficult as it is unique. Nothing like the world is no longer met. » Compared with the rest of the language of these people it seems «more than strange» — there are only seven consonants and three vowels. But we can say at feasts, sing, whistle and even communicate with the birds.

 

 

 

One of the books that Everett wrote under the impression of «incredible and very different Indians» called: «Do not sleep there are snakes!», Which literally translates: «Do not sleep, snakes everywhere!» And indeed, among the feasts are not accepted sleep for a long time — only 20-30 minutes and only when necessary. They are convinced that a long sleep can change a person, and if a lot of sleep, there is a risk of losing yourself, becoming quite different. My daily routine they do not like the fact the regular eight-hour sleep and they just do not need. For this reason, they do not sleep at night, and just doze a little bit where they overtake fatigue. To not sleep, they rubbed their eyelids juice of a tropical plant.

By observing changes in your body associated with the stages of maturation and aging, feasts believe that the reason the dream. Gradually changing every Indian takes a new name — this happens on average once every six to eight years. For each age they have their names so that, knowing the name, you can always say about someone in question — about the child, adolescent, adult or elderly.

 

 

 

25 years of missionary Everett is in no way influenced the beliefs feasts. But the scientist, in turn, once and for all zayazal with religion and even more immersed in the scientific activities, becoming a professor of linguistics. Comprehending Aboriginal worlds, Daniel and then faced with things that are hard to fit into his head. One of these phenomena — the absolute absence of numerals and counting. The Indians of the tribe using only two corresponding words: «several» and
«many.» «Feasts do not use the number because I do not need them — they do very well without it. One day I asked, «So, mothers feasts do not know how many children they have?» I replied, «They do not know the exact number of their children, but they know their names and faces. They do not need to know the number of children to learn and to love them. »

 

 

Even more weird seems no separate words for colors. It’s hard to believe, but the natives living in the middle filled with bright colors of the tropical jungle, there are only two words denoting the color of the world — the «light» and «dark.» At the same time, all the Pirahã successfully pass the test for color separation, distinguishing silhouettes of birds and animals in mixed colored smears.

Unlike its neighbors from other tribes, the folk does not create decorative patterns on their bodies, indicating the complete absence of art. There is no form of feasts past and future tenses. Myths and legends are also there — the collective memory is built only on personal experience of the oldest of the living members of the tribe. At the same time, each of them has a truly encyclopedic knowledge of thousands of plants, insects and animals — remember all the names, properties and characteristics.

 

 

 

Another phenomenon of these extraordinary citizens deaf Brazilian jungle — complete lack of food storage ideas. Everything that is produced from hunting or fishing immediately eaten. A new portion of them only being sent much hungry. If the outing for with food does not work, they are taking it philosophically — say, often there are also bad as a lot of sleep. The thought of food for future use blanks it seems as absurd as the stories of white-skinned people of the one God.

Feasts eat no more than twice a day, and sometimes even rarer. Watching as the Everett family was eating with his regular lunch, lunch or dinner, banquets genuinely perplexed, «How can you eat so much? You die so! »

On private property — it’s not the same as humans. The majority of things — total. Is that uncomplicated clothing and personal weapons at everyone. However, if the person does not use this or that subject, so he does not need it. And therefore such a thing, you can easily borrow. If this fact upset the former owner, he will return it. It should also be noted that children are not toys Piraha that however, does not prevent them from playing with each other, plants, dogs and forest spirits.

 

 

If you ask to find people on our Planet, free from any prejudice, then there feasts in the first place. No tortured joy, no false politeness, no «thank you», «excuse me» and «please.» Why is it all when feasts, and so fond of each other without any silly formalities. Moreover, they never for a moment doubt that not only the tribesmen, but other people are always glad to see them. Feelings of shame, resentment, guilt or regret them as alien. Kakda right to do what he wants. Nobody nobody educates and teaches. It is inconceivable that one of them had stolen or killed.

«You will not find at feasts chronic fatigue syndrome. You do not encounter here with the suicide. The idea of ​​suicide is contrary to their nature. I’ve never seen them anything even remotely resembling a psychiatric disorder that we associate with depression or melancholy. They just live in the present day, and they are happy. They sing at night. It’s just a phenomenal degree of satisfaction — without psychotropic drugs and antidepressants «- says Everett, Pirahã has devoted more than 30 years of his life.

 

 

 

Relations with the world of children’s jungle dreams also fall outside the scope of the usual for us. «They have a very different concept of objective and subjective. Even when they have dreams, they do not separate them from the real world. The experiences in the dream, it is considered as important as the experience gained during wakefulness. Thus, if I dreamed that I was walking on the moon, then to their point of view, I really made this trip, «- says Dan.

Feasts see themselves as an integral part of nature — the children of the forest. For them, the forest — a complex living organism, in relation to which they have a genuine awe and sometimes even fear. The forest is full of strange and inexplicable things that they do not try to guess. And yet there lives a whole lot of mysterious spirits. Feasts believe that after death is sure to swell their ranks — then that they will get all the answers. And while there is no sense to bother with any nonsense.

Everett repeatedly watched as his fellow Indians are extremely lively, loud communicate with unseen spirits — as if it were ordinary people. Asked why a scientist does not see anything like that, every time he received a peremptory answer — they say that’s hard to understand — the spirits come not to him but to the feasts.

 

 

Contrary to the fears of Daniel associated with the possible disappearance of the tribe into force of collision with the larger world, the number of banquets in our days has increased from 300 to 700 people. Being in the four days’ journey on the river, the tribe and today lives quite apart. There are still almost do not build houses and cultivate the soil for your needs, relying on nature. Clothing — the only concession to modern life feasts. They are extremely reluctant to accept the blessings of civilization. «They agree to only accept certain gifts. They need the fabric, tools, machetes, aluminum cookware, thread, matches, sometimes — flashlights and batteries, hooks and fishing line. They never ask for anything major — just small things, «- he says Dan, thoroughly studied the habits and preferences of their unusual friends.

«I think that they are happy because they do not worry about the past and the future. They feel able to take care of your needs today. They do not seek things that do not possess. If I have something to give to them — good. If not — well, too. Unlike us, they are not materialists. They appreciate the opportunity to travel quickly and easily. I have never and nowhere (even among the other Indians of the Amazon) have not seen so calm attitude to material objects. »

 

 

As you know, there is nothing that changes the consciousness and inner peace as traveling. And the farther from the house manages to get, the faster and more powerful the effect. Going beyond the familiar and the familiar world can be the most powerful, bright and unforgettable experience in my life. It is necessary to leave the comfort zone to see what he had not seen before, and know that what before had no idea.

«I often drew parallels between the Pirahã and worldview of Zen» — continues to Everett. «As for the Bible, I realized that for a long time was a hypocrite, because he is not fully believed in what he was saying. The man — a much more complex being than Scripture says, and religion does not make us better or happier. I am currently working on a book called «The Wisdom of Travelers» — how important and useful lessons can we get from people who are very different from ourselves. And the more these differences, the more we can learn. None of the library you will not get such a valuable experience. »

It is unlikely that someone on this planet exists a precise definition of what happiness is. Perhaps happiness — a life without regret, and fear of the future. People megacities difficult to understand how all this is possible. But the natives of the tribe feasts living «here and now», in other words just do not know how. What they do not see themselves, they do not exist. Such people do not need God. «We do not need heaven, we need that on the ground,» — say the happiest people in the world — the people, with the people that never goes smile — Indian feasts.

Today, in the great world only three people speak the language Pirahã — Everett, his ex-wife and missionary who was the forerunner of Daniel in the lost jungles of the Amazon.

 

 

What is the language and culture piraha? Here are their main features (and the main feature — the extreme poverty of abstract thinking):

  1. The poorest in the world set of phonemes. Just three vowels (a, i, o) and eight consonants (p, t, k, ‘, b, g, s, h). However, almost each of the consonants are represented by two allophone. In addition, language has «whistling» version, is used to transmit signals on the hunt.
  2. The absolute absence of the account. All the other nations of the world, no matter how primitive they are, can count at least two, ie, distinguish «one», «two», and more than two. Piraha do not even know how to count to one …. They do not distinguish the uniqueness and plurality. Show them one finger, two fingers — and they will not see the difference. They have only two relevant words: 1) «small / or one bit» and 2) «great / many.» Here it should be noted that the language piraha no word «finger» (there is only a «hand»), and they are never on anything not point the finger — just across the wrist.
  3. The lack of perception and especially integrity. The language piraha no words «all», «all», «all», «part», «some». If all members of the tribe fled to the river to bathe, the story piraha will sound like this: «A. went swimming, went to B., B. went great / many piraha go / have gone. » Also piraha no sense of proportion. White merchants since the end of the 18th century led to them barter and all marvel: piraha can bring a pair of parrot feathers and require return the entire ship luggage or may drag something huge and expensive and demand for a breath of vodka.
  4. Lack of command syntax. Thus, the phrase «he told me which way he will go» on piraha not translated literally.
  5. Extreme poverty pronouns. Until recently piraha likely did not have the personal pronouns («I», «you», «he», «she»); those they use today, it is obviously borrowed from neighboring Tupi.
  6. The absence of separate words for colors, and hence their poor perception. Strictly speaking, there are only two words: «light» and «dark».
  7. Extreme poverty concepts of kinship. Those are only three «parent», «child» and «Brother / Sister» (without any distinction of sex). Moreover, the «parent» means a grandfather, grandmother, etc .; «Child» — his grandson, etc. The word «uncle», «cousin», etc. no. And since there are no words, no concepts. For example, sexual intercourse with her aunt nephew incest is not considered because no concept of «aunt» and «nephew».
  8. The absence of any collective memory, more long than the personal experience of the oldest of the living members of the tribe. For example, modern piraha not aware of what was once a time when white people in the neighborhood did not exist that they once came from.
  9. The almost complete absence of any myths or religious beliefs. All their metaphysics is based solely on dreams; however, even then they do not have a clear idea of ​​what kind of world. Here it should be noted that no separate language piraha words «idea» and «dream.» «I said,» «I think» and «I had a dream» sound the same, and only the context allows you to guess what you mean. No hint of a myth of creation there. Piraha live in the present tense and the present day.
  10. The almost complete absence of art (no patterns, no body paint, no earrings or nose rings are not). It should be noted that children have piraha toys.
  11. The lack of a consistent daily rhythm of life. All other people are awake during the day and sleep at night. There is no such piraha: they sleep at different times and little by little. I wanted to sleep — lay down, slept for 15 minutes or an hour, got up, went hunting, then again to get some sleep. Therefore, the phrase «the village sank into a peaceful sleep» to piraha inapplicable.
  12. Lack of accumulation of food. No Labazov and storage there. All brought with hunting meat is eaten immediately, and if the next hunting unsuccessfully — to go hungry as long as again no luck.

In all of this piraha my life very happy. They consider themselves to be the most charming and attractive, and the rest — some strange subhuman. They call themselves the word, literally translated as «normal people,» and all non-piraha (and whites and other Indians) — «brains on one side.» Interestingly, the closest (genetically) to them Mura Indians once, obviously, were the same as they were, but later assimilated with the neighboring tribes, lost their language — and their primitive — and become «civilized.» Piraha also remain the same as they were, and look down on the Mura.

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