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[:RU]5 extinct religions of the world[:]


Many ancient religions had long been sunk into oblivion. Some of them have disappeared without a trace, others still affect the course of history.
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About Druids we mostly know from the Greek and Roman authors, in particular, the lion’s share of information modern historians derive from «Notes on the Gallic War» Gaius Julius Caesar. Last writes about the bloody rituals of the Celtic priests — priests offering of the sacrifice of criminals, prisoners of war, and in the absence thereof — of innocent people. All this for the sake of the mercy of their gods. Pliny the Elder tells an even more horrible ritual of the Druids — cannibalism. Recent archaeological excavations in the English county of Cheshire confirm the words of Pliny. Found femur, split lengthwise, researchers believe, it says that the Druids thus gained access to the bone marrow. Priests, Druids had temples and made their rituals in sacred groves, inspires awe in the hearts of mortals. Curiously, the memory of it remained in Christian times — such places are often regarded as «the abode of the devil.» Druidry is considered to be the usual paganism, however, for some investigators Druidism is not primitive religion. The French thinker Rene Guenon believed that the sacred doctrines preached by the Druids, was made a synthesis of all the knowledge of the human world. In the XVII — XVIII centuries. in Britain there was a surge of interest in the religion of the ancient Celts. Today, according to television channel BBC News, to count themselves among the druids More than 10 000 Britons.
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The religious-philosophical and esoteric teaching — Manichaeism — originated in the III century BC. e. the Middle East and spread to the XI century on the territory from North Africa to China. Manichaeism is sometimes called syncretic religion, because it can detect features of Zoroastrianism, Neo-Platonism, Christianity and Buddhism. The founder of Manichaeism considered native of Persian princely family Suraika (214-277), called Mani. The preacher put himself on a par with Jesus and Buddha. In particular, on a parallel with Christ indicates it the following statement: «After I am gone out of the world and go to the house of my people, I will gather all the elect who believe in me, in that place; I’ll take everyone to myself. » At the heart of the Manichean doctrine is dualism — the opposition of light and darkness, good and evil. However, in his picture of the world he came from Mani equal interaction of opposites. Thus, it is discharged to God for the existence of evil in the world. Modern researchers called Manichaeism «esotericism without the top» because of the refusal to recognize the existence of a unit — complete Absolute. Manichaes emphasized the cosmic laws of equilibrium in which the ultimate victory of good or evil would mean the collapse of the universe. Today, Manichaeism is synonymous with «the world of heresy», since this teaching for a long time successfully penetrated into many religious and cultural contexts. Traces of Manichaeism can also be found in the rites of Slavic paganism, and the structure of the Masonic lodges.
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Zoroastrianism — the first book of prophetic religion. Its doctrine is based on the revelations of Zoroaster Spitama he received from god Ahura Mazda. Historians have dated very vague years of life of the prophet — from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. e. to the 6th century BC. e. The birthplace of Zoroastrianism, according to most scholars, is the North-eastern Iran. However, some believe that religion could have arisen in the South Urals. Zarathustra Sermons were mostly ethical, denouncing acts of Aryan chiefs and sorcerers. They prophet condemned the violence, looting and bloody rituals, praised the honesty and work, and called for peace. The basic tenets of the Zoroastrian faith gathered in the sacred book — Avesta.
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Zoroastrianism is appealing to the ontological opposition of good and evil, but in the full sense of the dualistic religion of it can not be considered: Zoroastrians believe in one God, creator of all things. Zoroastrianism can be called the religion of virtue: personal salvation was not the main aim of the exercise, it was enough to fulfill his duty of the believer, the worker and family man. To date, Zoroastrianism almost disappeared in Islam, but small communities of its adherents still exist in Iran (algebra) and India (Parsis). Today, there are less than 100 thousand. Zoroastrians. Preserved and some ceremonies. Parsis, for example, so as not to defile the sacred elements — fire, water, earth and air — to bury the dead in the «towers of silence», giving the body at the mercy of vultures. Parsa, known to have been Freddie Mercury.
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Mithraic bas-reliefs carved on the rocks and stones, can be found in many countries of the western provinces of the Roman Empire — from Germany to Britain. Persian cult of Mithras, since I century BC. e. by Roman soldiers began to penetrate into southern Europe and very quickly gained popularity there. Mithraeum up to the IV century, remained the center of religious life of Rome. Mitra — the embodiment of the image of the sun god and a symbol of fertility, but he was also the guarantor of law and order. Mitra patronized those who lead a righteous life, but it was hard on, and companions of liars.
The cult of Mithras was very popular among the lower classes, as proclaimed equality and deceive the afterlife. Mithraism and externally, and content showed a marked resemblance to propagating in the period on the territory of the Roman Empire, Christianity. Places of worship of both cults were mostly in caves, altars were built there in the background cut out image of the Savior of mankind — Mithra and Jesus. Both religions practiced washing and the communion bread and wine. Less flexible Mithraism could not stand as a result of competition with Christianity and lost. However, the influence of the cult of Mithras is still making itself felt. For example, at the heart of bullfighting is one of the acts of Mithra — the sacrifice of the sacred bull.
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Most sources are inclined to believe that sabeizm — whose adherents worshiped the heavenly bodies — the pre-Islamic religion, established in Mesopotamia, Arabia, Syria, and Asia Minor.Its origins should be sought in Babylon of the Chaldeans, and astrology.Arab writer Al Soyuti spoke about some Seth’e (also called Hermes) as the founder sabeizma.Pyramids are built Sabaean, on the one hand considered as a model of the planetary system, but on the other — as the tomb Seth’a and Idris — the latter is considered a prophet in Islam, astronomer and mathematician and is identified with the biblical Enoch.The medieval chronicler Ahmed Ben Yahua pointed out that each pyramid was dedicated to a specific star or a ruler.Sabaeans, according to chroniclers, flocked to the pyramids and turned toward the north, sang prayers seven times.The British expert on ancient astronomy Wilson thought it would be the pyramids of Egypt, which he called «a monument left by Sabaean missionaries from the East.»

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