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[:RU]Russian-Indian War in Alaska.[:]

[:RU]Land development of Alaska Russian colonists began at the end of the XVIII century. Moving south along the mainland coast of Alaska in search of rich fishing grounds, the Russian party of hunters of sea mammals are gradually approaching the territory, populated Tlingit — one of the most powerful and formidable tribes of the Northwest Coast. Russian called them Kolosha (Kolyuzhami). This name comes from the custom of Tlingit women inserted into an incision in the lower lip wooden bar — kaluzhku why lip stretched and hung down. «Angrier most predatory animals», «murderous and evil people», «krovozhazhduschie barbarians» — spoke in such terms about the Tlingit Russian explorers.

And the fact they had their reasons.

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By the end of the XVIII century. Tlingit occupied the south-eastern coast of the Gulf of Alaska Portland Canal in the south to the north of Yakutat Bay and the surrounding islands of the Alexander Archipelago.

Country Tlingit divided into territorial units — kuany (Sitka, Yakutat, Hoonah, Hutsnuvu, Which, Stikine, Chilkat, etc.). Each of them could be several large winter villages where representatives of different genera (clans sibov) belonging to two large tribal phratry — Wolf / Eagle and the Raven. These clans — Kiksadi, Kagvantan, Deshitan, Tluknahadi, Tekuedi, Nanyaayi and so on. D. — Often at odds with each other. It is generic, and clan ties are the most important and strong in Tlingit society.


The first encounter with Russian Tlingit dated 1741 year, later also occurred small skirmishes with weapons.

In 1792, on the island occurred Hinchinbruk armed conflict with an uncertain outcome: head of the party of industrialists and future ruler of Alaska Alexander Baranov almost died, the Indians retreated, but the Russian did not dare to gain a foothold on the island and also sailed to the island of Kodiak. Tlingit warriors wore wooden wicker kuyak, elk animal-like cloaks and helmets (apparently from the skulls of animals). Indians were armed with mostly cold and throwing weapons.

If the attack on the party, AA Baranov in 1792 Tlingit is not used firearms, whereas in 1794 they had a lot of guns, as well as a decent amount of ammunition and gunpowder.

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The peace treaty with the Indians of the island of Sitka

Russian in 1795 appeared on the island of Sitka, owned by the Tlingit clan kiksadi. Closer contacts began in 1798.

After several minor skirmishes with small detachments kiksadi that led the young military leader Katlean Alexander Andreyevich Baranov concludes an agreement with the leader of the tribe kiksadi, Skautleltom the acquisition of land for the construction of factories.

Skautlelt was baptized, and his name was Michael. Baranov was his father Kresna. Skautlelt Baranov and assignment contracts kiksadi Russian part of the land on the coast and building a small trading post at the mouth of rivers Starrigavan.

The alliance between the Russian and kiksadi was beneficial to both parties. Russian patrons of the Indians and helped them to be protected from other warring tribes.

July 15, 1799 Russian began the construction of the fort «St. Archangel Michael», now it’s called Old Sitka.

Meanwhile, tribes and kiksadi deshitanov truce — feud between Indian clans ceased.

Danger to kiksadi disappeared. Too close relationship with the Russian has now become too burdensome. And kiksadi and Russian felt it very soon.

Tlingit from other clans who visited Sitka after the cessation of hostilities there, mocked and its inhabitants, «boasted of his liberty.» The biggest misunderstanding occurred at Easter, however, thanks to decisive action AA Baranova, bloodshed was avoided. However, the April 22, 1800 AA Baranov served on Kodiak, leaving the new rulers of the fortress VG Medvednikova.

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Despite the fact that the Tlingit had rich experience in dealing with the Europeans, the relations between the Russian settlers and the natives increasingly sharpened, which led, ultimately, to a protracted bloody war. However, this result was by no means just a ridiculous fluke, or a consequence of the machinations of treacherous foreigners, were not these events are generated by a unique natural bloodthirsty «savage Koloshi.» On the warpath Tlingit kuany brought other, more profound reasons. Prerequisites War

In Russian and Anglo-American traders were in these waters one goal, one main source of income — furs, fur of sea otters. But the means to achieve this goal were different. Russian themselves mined precious fur, sending them the party of Aleuts and basing on the fishing grounds permanent fortified settlement. Purchase skins from the Indians played a secondary role.

Directly opposite it received, due to the specifics of their situation, the British and US (Boston) traders. They periodically come in their boats to the shores of the country Tlingit, were active in trade, bought furs and went, leaving the Indians in exchange tissue, weapons, ammunition, alcohol.


Russian-American company could not offer Tlingit practically nothing of these so valued by them goods. Among current Russian ban on trade in firearms, pushed to the Tlingit more closer ties with Bostonians. For this trade, the volume of which is constantly growing, the Indians wanted more and more furs. However, their activities interfere with Russian Tlingit trade with the Anglo-Saxons.

Active fishing otter, who led Russian party, was the cause of the impoverishment of the natural resources of the region, depriving the Indians of their primary goods in relations with the Anglo-Americans. All this could not affect the relationship of Indians to Russian colonists. The Anglo-Saxons are actively warmed their hostility.

Every year, about fifteen foreign vessels were taken from holdings CANCER 10-15 thousand sea otters, which equals a four Russian fishing. Strengthening Russian presence threatens them with prison profits.

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Thus, the predatory fishing of sea animals that launched the Russian-American company, undermine the foundations of economic well-being of the Tlingit, depriving them of their main product in a profitable trade with the Anglo-American maritime traders whose inflammatory actions served as a catalyst that hastened the outbreak of imminent military conflict. Thoughtless and rude behavior of Russian industry the impetus to unite in the struggle for the Tlingit-American exile from their territories.

In winter 1802 in Hutsnuvu-Kuan (o.Admiralti) held the great Council of Chiefs, which adopted a decision to start the war against the Russian. On board was a plan of military action. It was planned in spring to collect soldiers in Hutsnuvu and waited leaving Sitka fishing party to attack the fort. The party planned to waylay those killed in the Strait.

Military operations began in May 1802 with an attack on the mouth of r.Alsek Yakutatskuyu fishing party, IA Kuskova. The party consisted of 900 indigenous hunters and more than a dozen Russian industry. Attack of the Indians after a few days shootout was successfully repelled. Tlingit, seeing the complete failure of his warlike plans, went to negotiate and conclude an armistice.




Rise of the Tlingit — the destruction of Mikhailovsky fort and fishing parties Russian

After the fort of St. Michael’s gone fishing party Ivan Urbanova (about 190 Aleuts) for the remaining 26 Russian Sitka, six «English» (American sailors in the service of Russian), 20-30 kadyaktsev and about 50 women and children. A small gang under the command of Alexis Yevglevsky and Alexey Baturin June 10 went on the hunt for «far sea-bears a stone.» Other residents of the settlement continued blithely go about their daily chores.

The Indians attacked simultaneously from two sides — from the forest and from the bay, sailed on war canoes. This campaign was led by a military leader kiksadi, Skautlelta nephew, a young leader — Katlian. Tlingit armed mob, numbering some 600 men under the command of the leader sitkintsev Skautlelta surrounded the barracks and opened heavy gunfire at the windows. In rallying cry Skautlelta because Cape Bay got a huge fleet of war canoes on which there are at least 1,000 Indian warriors immediately joined the sitkintsam. Soon flared roof barracks. Russian tried to shoot, but could not resist the overwhelming superiority of the attackers: the doors were kicked out of the barracks, and in spite of the direct fire of the gun, standing inside the Tlingit managed to get inside, to kill all the defenders and plunder were stored in the barracks fur

There are different versions of the Anglo-Saxons participate in starting the war.

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East India captain Barber landed in 1802 on the island of Sitka six sailors for alleged mutiny on the ship. They have to work in the Russian city.

Bribing Indian chiefs weapon rum and trinkets, for the long winter parking in the village of Tlingit and promises them gifts if they banish from his Russian island and threatened not to sell guns and whiskey, Barber played on the ambition of the young military leader Katleana. The gates of the fort opened inside the American sailors. So, naturally, without warning or explanation Indians attacked the fortress. All defenders, including women and children, were killed.

In another version of the real instigator of the Indians should not be considered an Englishman Barbera and American Cunningham. He, unlike Barbera and sailors was in Sitka is clearly not accidental. There is a version that he was privy to plans of the Tlingit, and even participated directly in their development.

The fact that the perpetrators of the Sitka disaster will be declared foreigners were originally destined. But the reasons for the fact that the main culprit was then recognized as an Englishman Barber lie, probably, to the uncertainty in what was in those years, the Russian foreign policy.

The fortress was completely destroyed and exterminated the entire population. There’s still nothing build. The loss for the Russian America were significant two years Baranov gathered forces to return to Sitka.

The news of the defeat of the fortress brought Baranov English captain Barber. The island of Kodiak, he put 20 cannons on board his ship — «Unicorn.» But, afraid to mess with Baranov, went to the Sandwich Islands — trade with Hawaiians good, stolen in Sitka.

A day later, the Indians wiped out almost entirely small batch Basil Kochesova, returns to the castle with fishing sea lions.

Tlingit had a special hatred for Basil Kochesovu, the famous hunter, known among the Indians and Russian as unmatched marksman. Tlingit called him Gidak (Gidak), which probably comes from the Tlingit name Aleut, whose blood flowed in his veins Kochesova — giyak-kwaan (Hunter’s mother was originally from the islands of the Fox group). After securing, finally, Archer hated in their hands, the Indians tried to make his death as the death of his friend, painful as possible. According K.T.Hlebnikova, «barbarians not suddenly, but they cut it by the hour nose, ears and other members of their bodies, they stuffed his mouth, and viciously mocked torments sufferers. Kochesov … could not long endure the pain and was happy termination of life but the unfortunate Eglevsky more days languishing in terrible agony »

In the same in 1802: it was hunted down the Indians Fishing Sitka Party Ivan Urbanova (90 kayaks) in the Strait of Frederick and attacked on the night of 19th to 20th of June. Bated ambushed soldiers Keiko Kuang-Kuyu nothing betrayed his presence and, as he wrote K.T.Hlebnikov, «head of the party does not notice it any trouble or cause for displeasure … But Sia and silence were the forerunners of severe storms.» The Indians attacked partovschikov the inn and «almost destroyed by felling their bullets and daggers.» The massacre killed 165 kadyaktsev and it was no less heavy blow to the Russian colonization than the destruction of the fortress of St. Michael.


The return of Russian in Sitka

Then came 1804 — the year of the return to the Russian Sitka. Baranov learned that Kronstadt went to sea first Russian voyage around the globe, and look forward to the arrival of «Neva» in Russian America, doing at the same time the construction of a fleet of ships.

In the summer of 1804 the governor of the Russian possessions in America AA Rams went to the island from 150 manufacturers and 500 Aleuts on their canoes and ships «Ermak», «Alexander», «Ekaterina» and «Rostislav».

AA Baranov ordered Russian warships to stay in front of the village. For a whole month he was negotiating with the leaders of the extradition of several prisoners and the resumption of the treaty, but it was all to no avail. The Indians moved from their old village to the new settlement at the mouth of Indian River.

The outbreak of hostilities. In early October, the flotilla Baranova joined the brig «Neva», commanded Lisyansky.

After a long and hard resistance from Kolosh were parliamentarians. After the talks, the whole tribe is gone.

October 8, 1804 on Indian settlements was raised Russian flag. Archangel — the capital of Russian America

Baranov took the empty village and destroyed it. There was also a new fortress — the future capital of Russian America — New Archangel. On the shore of the bay, where there was an old Indian village, on a hill, it was built fortification, and then Ruler house, which is called Indians — Castle Baranova.

Only in the autumn of 1805, it was again the agreement between Baranov and Skautleltom. As the gifts were presented bronze double-headed eagle, hats world, made on the model of Russian Tlingit ceremonial hats and blue robe with an Ermine. But for a long time, and Russian Aleuts were afraid to go into the impenetrable rain forests of Sitka, it could cost them their lives.

Archangel (most likely the beginning of the 1830s.)

Archangel to August 1808 was the main city of the Russian-American Company and the administrative center of the Russian possessions in Alaska and remained so until 1867, when Alaska was sold to the United States.

In New Archangel stood a wooden fortress, shipyard, warehouses, barracks, houses. It is home to 222 Russian and more than one thousand. Natives. The fall of Russian fort Yakutat August 20, 1805 warriors eyaki Clan tlahaik-tekuedi (tluhedi) headed by tanuh and Lushvakom and their allies among the Tlingit Clan kuashkkuan Yakutat burned and massacred there remained Russian . Of the total population of the Russian colony in Yakutat in 1805 died, according to official figures, 14 Russian «, and with them many more islanders,» ie, the union of the Aleuts. The main part of the party with Demyanenkovym was sunk in a sea storm gust. Then killed about 250 people. The fall and death of the party Yakutat Demyanenkova was another heavy blow to the Russian colonies. It was lost an important economic and strategic base on the coast of America.

Thus, the armed actions of the Tlingit and eyakov in 1802-1805 gg. considerably weakened the capacity of cancer. Direct financial damage reached, apparently at least half a million rubles. All this for a few years, stopped the Russian advance in a southerly direction along the northwest coast of America. Indian threat in the future fettered forces Cancer district architect. Alexander and did not allow to begin a systematic colonization of Southeast Alaska. Relapses confrontation

So, February 4, 1851 Indian war party to p. Koyukuk attacked the village of Indians who lived in Russian alone (factor) Nulato on the Yukon. He was attacked and very single. However, the attackers were repulsed with the damage. Losses were in Russian: killed the chief Vasily Deryabin and factories were fatally injured employee of the company (Aleut) and English Lieutenant Bernard, who arrived in Nulato with the British sloop of war «Enterprise» to search for the missing members of the third polar expedition of Franklin. That same winter Tlingit (Sitka Koloshi) staged a few quarrels and fights with the Russian market and in the woods near Archangel. In response to these provocations chief ruler NY Rosenberg Indians announced that in the event of further unrest he can use all closed «koloshensky market» and will break all trade with them. Sitkintsev reaction to this ultimatum was unprecedented: the next morning, they attempted to capture the Archangel. Some of them, armed with guns, stuck in the bushes near the ramparts; another, putting ready-made wooden stairs to the tower with guns, so-called «battery Koloshenskoy» almost took it. Fortunately for the Russian sentries were alert and raised the alarm in time. He came to the rescue to help armed squad threw down the three already on the battery vlezshih Indians, and others stopped.

In November 1855 there was another incident when some natives captured Andrew alone in the lower reaches of the Yukon. At this time, there were her manager — Kharkov tradesman Alexander Shcherbakov and two who served in the Finnish-American workers. As a result of a surprise attack baidarshchik Shcherbakov and one worker were killed and looted loner. Survivors employee CANCER Keryaninu Lawrence managed to escape and safely reach the Mikhailovsky Redoubt. Immediately it was equipped punitive expedition, which sought hiding in the tundra of the natives, to destroy Andrew alone. They entered the barabore (Eskimo huts) and refused to surrender. Russian were forced to open fire. In a shootout, five natives were killed and one managed to escape.

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