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[:RU]How to produce tires for the car.[:]

[:RU]Photo-excursion on the bus to the famous Yaroslavl plant, one of the biggest tire factories in the central region of Russia. Reports of the workshops, which produce and test the tire brand «Cordiant» for cars.

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I knew before that the tire — not a simple thing. It turned out that the production is even more difficult than I imagined. And most importantly, I have learned the secret, where are the antennae on the new tires and why they are needed!

1. A bit of history: Not many people know that long ago the tires were made ​​of wood or metal (so I was told at the institute). The world’s first rubber tire was made ​​by Robert William Thomson in 1846, but the author of the tire considered Scotsman John Dunlop, who in 1887 came up to put on a tricycle wheel of his 10-year-old son broad hoops made ​​out of a hose for watering the garden, and inflate of air. It is with the bike and began the era of pneumatic tires.

2. The basic materials for the production of tires are tires, which is manufactured from natural and synthetic rubbers, and cord.
Manufacturing begins with the tire rubber compounding, which can include up to 10 chemicals from sulfur and carbon and ending with rubber. From a mixture of special machines for extrusion billets make different tires for the future.

3. For example, looking next on the conveyor cord.

4. On the cull section blank you can see a «skeleton tires» — frame, which is made ​​of high-strength steel cord. Many minded car owners believe that it’s time to throw the bus only when it is erased before the cord.

5. The machines manufactured components for assembly. The extrusion process is similar for the majority of products and components look about the same — at the exit of the machine gets long rubber band.

6. Rubber vulcanization up very sticky, so the material is wound into reels paving each turn with a protective layer.

7. All the components are sorted by size tires on each reel is adhered bar code to be able at any time to understand what type of tires produced material.

8. Machines with huge coils made ​​bead rings. Onboard ring — an important element of the tire, which is made ​​of a plurality of coils of rubberized bead wire. This inextensible, tough part of the tire, with which the fixation on the rim of the disc.

9. Many, many strands woven into a series that further obrezinivayutsya.

10. This machine rounds out the rubberized wire into the ring for the desired planting size of the disk. On the left in the frame — the tape wire, right — finished rings.

11. Ready bead rings.

12. At assembly machines all parts bus connected together. Necessary components of bobbins loaded on the conveyor belt.

13. It looks like the tread of the workpiece. Before curing it is simply a thick rubber band without tread. Colored lines — special coding to be able to quickly and clearly understand what a tire radius, width and height of the profile, etc. (A kind of barcode tires).

14. Babina the workpiece is unwound, the component goes on the conveyor, and a protective layer (brown belt, the material does not stick together) is wound on another reel.

15. Next phase begins «Glory robots!». Everything happens very quickly and you can not immediately figure out what’s what. On the assembly drum sequentially superimposed layers of different conveyor belts.

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16. Then comes the big robot and cleverly air balloons blank, something crushes, compresses and wraps it turns semi-finished tire.

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17. As conveyor lines blanks are sent to the shop vulcanization.

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19. Here, the tire is subjected to hot-heat steam under high pressure. Rubber, carbon black and additives «baked» into a single unit, and the external and internal surface of the tire with the help of molds applied tread pattern, lettering and other technical profiles.

20. The workshop whole rows with plants vulcanization molds for different types of tire.

21. On the left is the vulcanization process, and the right empty chamber with the diaphragm, which inflates the tire under high pressure.

22. The preform chamber, seen from the top of the mold. Under pressure on the sidewalls and tread drawn embossed pattern. There is a chemical reaction (curing), which gives the rubber elasticity and strength.

23. Here is the disassembled mold. Over time, by high temperature and pressure molding is contaminated and should be cleaned.

24. First of all channels clogged exhaust air vulcanization. It is because these channels are formed and those mysterious «whiskers» on the new tires.

25. The mold for sidewall.

26. workshop where clean contaminate the mold.

27. History
In June 1943, as a result of German air raids, the factory was completely destroyed. But in late September, the consequences of the bombing were eliminated, the plant recovered.
1950s. For the first time in the USSR, the plant began producing tubeless tires for passenger car «Victory», «Volga», «ZIM».
The end of the ’50s. The country is experiencing a «tire crisis», a simple transport increased because of a shortage of tires.
1966 released 100 millionth tire.
YaShZ 1969 the first of the domestic factories were given the right to issue new tires for the car «Zhiguli».

28. Within the setting of the vulcanization incredibly beautiful!

29. That’s where you had to shoot the Terminator.

Thirty.

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32. Ready tires supplied to the common pipeline and sent to the final quality control before sending the tires to consumers.

33.

34. Control performed a visual inspection of the tires.

35. Further to the work of the robot is switched on again, check that the dynamic characteristics of each tire.

36. All new models are sure to stand and laboratory and road tests in the factory experimental test center that carried out on special machines, which simulate operating conditions, several times higher than on the effects of road.

37. Wheels for all types of tires.

38. And here is the test bench for just six tires at the same time.

39. And this is — aircraft tires. How to produce them — a big secret! The enterprises of the company «SIBUR — Russian Tyres», producing Cordiant brand tires produced not only a wide range of products for consumers, but also special products, such as tires for fighter of the 5th generation, known as T-50 or PAK-FA.

40. To look at the production of aircraft tires need to obtain approval by the FSB.

41. This workshop established stands where mimic the speed and the load on the tire during takeoff and landing aircraft.

42.

43. So manufactures tires Cordiant.
«The modern assembly equipment — is a fully automated production, in which a person is given only minimal role. Automated production reduces the influence of the human factor on the quality of the tire, which leads to a significant improvement in the performance of the final product. »

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