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[:RU]A Brief History of Russian tanks.[:]

[:RU]Beginning with the First World War to the present day tanks dominate the fields of war and local conflicts. In Soviet tank building was established well. Tanks were modernized and became more effective.

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1. The first tanks

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Tanks for the first time found the combat use in the fields of the First World War. However, on the Eastern Front neither Russian nor the German troops had not used tanks. The first stage in the development of tank development in Soviet Russia was up trophy specimens captured during the Civil War. So, based on captured in 1919 in the battle near Odessa tanks «Reno» was created at the Sormovo plant in Nizhny Novgorod, a series of 12 tanks. The next step was the creation of the MC-1 tanks, which were the first combat use in the battles on the CER in 1929. By the end of the thirties, they were used as fixed gun emplacements.
2. Searches and solutions

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The second stage can be called the period of 1929 — 1939’s, when on the basis of acquired overseas projects to create their own tanks. Some machines contained significant borrowing — others are much smaller. The main objective was to give the Red Army a large number of easy-to-manufacture and operation of tanks. So there were relatively simple and massive Soviet light tanks T-26 and BT, well proven in military conflicts of the interwar period. The period of the 1930s to the whole world and not only for the USSR was time to find solutions how it should be tank — there were a variety of ideas and concepts from the tactical and technical data and to methods of application. Reflection of the idea of a towered tank in the USSR was the appearance of the T-28 and T-35, designed to break the enemy’s fortifications. t28_17 T-28 fared well during the Polish campaign and in difficult conditions of the Soviet-Finnish War. However, after the war with Finland and settled on the idea of creating odnobashennogo tank with protivosnaryadnym booking. Great success was the creation of a diesel engine V-2, which is set during the Great Patriotic War on all Soviet medium and heavy tanks. As early November 3, 1939 the People’s Commissar of Defense Voroshilov and Commissar of Medium Machine Building Likhachev reported to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) that the Soviet tank builders in the short term «achieved truly outstanding results, designed and built tanks which has no equal.» It was about the T-34 and KV.
3. The world’s first

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On the eve of the Great Patriotic War, the production of tanks were deployed in Kharkov, Leningrad and Stalingrad (before the war began to explore the production of T-34). By the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union the number of tanks was superior to any army in the world. In addition, one of the features of the Soviet Union was the mass (for example, in comparison with Germany) production of armored vehicles, also played a significant role in the military conflicts of the late 30s.
4. Disclaimer of light tanks

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During the Great Patriotic War is characterized by a number of trends. Firstly, during the evacuation of industry to the east of the country and the huge losses in tanks in the first months of the war required the creation and production of simple and cheap combat vehicles. Such was the second mass after the T-34, T-60, based at the floating tank T-40. Armed with a 20mm automatic cannon and 7.62 mm machine gun tank played a role in the Battle of Moscow. Its further development became light tanks T-70 and T-80 with enhanced armor protection and a 45-mm cannon. However, after 1943 the further design and production of light tanks in the USSR was considered impractical because of the high vulnerability, although Germany and the anti-Hitler coalition in different proportions continued production of these machines.

5. «Thirty-four»

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The second trend was the very rapid development and aging tanks — if in 1941 the Soviet T-34 and KV with 76 mm guns were almost invincible in tank battles, from the middle of 1942 the picture changes — needed to create a more powerful tanks. In the USSR, went towards the creation though not perfect, but a simple and massive tank became what are the T-34/76 and T-34/85. T-34 became the most numerous tank of the Second World War. During the war, was released about 48 thousand «tridtsatchetverok.» For comparison, the tanks «Sherman» — 48 thousand, and German T-IV — about 9500. T-34 was indeed the best option for the domestic industry, the army and the specific conditions of the fighting from the Caucasus to the Arctic. Similar trends were reflected in the creation of heavy tanks IP. Also, if before World War II self-propelled guns do not occupy a significant place in the Red Army, from the middle of the war on the contrary — SAU begin to play a significant role and begins mass production.
6. After the war. Three tanks

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The postwar period was characterized by a generalization of the experience of the Second World War. Conceptually, in service were left heavy and medium tanks, and since the beginning of the 60s there has been a shift to the creation of the main tank. In the USSR, 70-80s were essentially three main tank.

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The first was the T-64 (produced in Kharkov) — a brand new car, which was embodied in a range of genuinely revolutionary ideas. However, the tank was too difficult to learn and use. Nevertheless, the machine is out of service is not removed and remained in the western districts of the USSR.

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The second machine became developed at the Kirov Plant T-80, there were issued the first machine, and mass production was deployed in Omsk. The tank had a gas turbine engine, but because of the increased speed of change and chassis.

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Third, and one of the most famous models, became the T-72, which has been repeatedly modernized. Its release was set up in Nizhny Tagil. The postwar period was characterized by large-scale and export of Soviet armored vehicles, due to both economic and political reasons. In a number of countries has been established and its own production — first of all it concerns the Warsaw Pact countries and partly China. Relatively simple and cheap Soviet tanks are widely used in wars and local conflicts in Africa and Asia.

7. Today.

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Today, the main battle tank is the Russian T-90 «Vladimir». It was created in the late 1980’s — early 1990’s as deep modernization of T-72 tanks, but in 1992 was adopted already under the T-90. Blagodyarya its survivability, maneuverability, reliability and firepower, in the period from 2001 to 2010, the T-90 became the best selling in the world market the new combined arms tank.[:]

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