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[:RU]As the film «The Revenant»[:]

[:RU]»The Revenant» can be called one of the most long-suffering Hollywood projects of the century. Adaptation of the novel by Michael Panke about the hunter, survived the attack grizzly More in 2001 conceived writer and producer Akiva Goldsman (in his filmography — «I — The Legend» and «Hancock»). For various reasons, the production of paintings was delayed for more than ten years. During this time, the script was completely rewritten several times, came new producer Steve Golin («Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind») and Arnon Milchan («Fight Club»), the directors went Park Chan-wook and John Hilkout and actors Samuel L. Jackson Christian Bale.

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Only in 2011 were attached to the film Alejandro González Iñárritu, Leonardo DiCaprio and Sean Penn. At the same time, and pre-production began. However, due to other projects (including the «Birdman» and the search for financing start painting postponed. As a result, the work did not wait for Penn, and was replaced by Tom Hardy.

Launched in September 2014 survey to be completed in seven months. But it was not there. A screen adaptation of the history of human trials began almost as a stern test for the entire group. At speeds workflow primarily disrupted the selected authors method of filming in chronological order (it is also automatically added $ 7 million to the budget).

The approach, according to Inarritu had to conform to the nature of a smooth transition from autumn to winter, and in addition, to help the actors to convey the evolution of the boundary mental state of his characters. However, the weather conditions were unpredictable: where the authors expected to catch the fall, they were met with snowstorms lyutymi frosts, but when needed the winter, everywhere there were butterflies and flowers bloom. Because of this, the team had to repeatedly turn off the shooting and look for other locations.

By the way, in an interview with the authors often referred to as the biggest problem group and moving the equipment to the place of the shooting. Suitable locations are off the beaten path, and only for the delivery of helicopters daily spend at least 40% of the time. Taking into account the non-use of lighting and short light day directly to the shooting was no more than 5-6 hours. And when needed modal light, or even a half-hour filmed («magic hour» as they called this time Lubezki). However, the rest of the time Inarritu not wasted, paying great attention to the training and rehearsals. This perfectionist filmmaker does not limit himself to the number of takes, and some scenes, such as the battle of hunters and Indians, shot by two weeks.

Another obstacle was the differences in the team. Because of the harsh conditions, graphics and constantly changing demands Iñárritu on the project was a big turnover. Unsuccessful organization of work resulted in the removal of one of the producers of the James Skotchdopoula. There was a conflict with Tom Hardy, who refused to perform their own stunts as insisted Inarritu.

Therefore, shooting several times interrupted and instead of May 2015 ended only in August. Budget meanwhile, more than doubled (from $ 60 million to $ 135 million). The reward for the test as we know — a set of «Golden Globes» and record of the year by the number of nominations for «Oscar».

The script for «Survivor,» which many consider a weak link, Marc Smith started to be developed in 2007. The text was finished only in 2012 in collaboration with Inarritu, having undergone at least a dozen drafts from 105 to 110 pages. The authors have created history at the crossroads of several genres. First of all, it’s survival film, a subgenre of adventure movie with a story in the spirit of Jack London about the hero’s single tests in the harsh environment of wildlife.

However, it is also anti-Western, then there is a picture, which overturned the canons of classic westerns: though the action takes place in the American West, pioneers are not the bearers of civilization, the Indians are not necessarily negative characters, there is no such characteristic typecasting as the sheriff or a femme fatale, and so on.

According to Smith, the key difficulty in the development of drama was that created «virtually silent film» — the author deliberately avoided replicas and dialogues, instead of the words used and the effect of trying to «write very visual.» For this reason, some of the scenes, such as a skirmish with the Indians or the bear attack, although it did not require a particular number of dialogues held in a scenario of 5-6 pages.

Another difficulty was the fact that for a large number of events, action and actors, the author sought to maintain concentration on a single storyline. Moreover, according to Smith, the line is not so much space as the line of love father to son, a key motive for the protagonist. To reduce the already extensive story line, Smith and Inarritu used flashbacks and dreams, through which it was possible in a concise and poetic form to convey the background. Another important point — Smith wrote, occasionally turning to punk. He tells us what animals or natural phenomena are relevant, what was the relationship between the Indians and hunters, and other items necessary for a fair reconstruction era.

The main intrigue of the present «Oscar» — bring any «Survivor,» the long-awaited award Leonardo DiCaprio. We will not go into the question whether it deserves this role figurines — let them decide academics. Nevertheless, it is clear that only as a feat of acting work, DiCaprio in the film can not be called. Actually, this tape caught him and «the possibility of investigating the limits of human endurance.» Iñárritu wanted to maximize the reliability of the artists, the real residence, and DiCaprio was only too happy to experience the same things as his hero. As a result, the actor does not bear tore up, but inside the horse did not have to sleep (say about this later).

Everything else he did in fact: walking in wet rags at -25 °, accustomed to hypothermia, rode, ate raw fish and liver bison, kindled a fire without matches, fired a weapon of two centuries ago, memorized cues in the language of the Indians. DiCaprio also insisted to appear in one of the most dangerous scenes in the movie — rafting on the icy mountain river. Five doubles substitute actor only when passing thresholds.

However, according to DiCaprio, the biggest challenge for him was the appearance — on prosthetics transmitting injured, daily care for 4-5 hours. A beard, which had six months to grow, badly hampered in bad weather and require careful maintenance. Another challenge for myself DiCaprio calls the small number of dialogues. If the actor usually gets the images are quite chatty characters, here he utters only half a dozen phrases. It is interesting that initially there were more, but after reading the text, DiCaprio had asked to reduce his words — it underlines the character of the hero and the complicated transfer of his emotional state.

Shooting of «Survivor» was decided to hold only on actual locations without pavilions and use of chromakeying. The only way in extreme conditions similar to those which were the heroes of history, according to Inarritu, reliability can be achieved. The shooting took place on twelve key areas in three countries on two continents. The vast geography was forced.

Initially it was planned to shoot entirely in Canada — in the highland provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. However, there was a unusually warm weather. Where the authors expected to see endless snow all melted. Even the artificial snow is not always saves the day. However, most of the scenes managed to shoot in Canada, and in the frame successfully hit the Rocky Mountains, Mount Fortress (where, incidentally, DiCaprio has starred in the film «Home»), the volcano Castle Rock, River Boue valley Skuamish with rain forests and Canadian wasteland.

For extreme river filming group moved to the United States, Montana, on the Kootenay River. The course she is not as dangerous as it was in Canadian rivers, and the water is warmer.

As time went by the summer, and in North America there was nowhere to find the necessary winter conditions, the group has moved to South America — Tierra del Fuego in the south of Argentina. They filmed the final scene with the fight of the main characters.

Especially for the film it was built several sets: fort, camp hunters, several Indian villages and ruined church. By creating them, production designer Jack Fisk («New World» and «Oil») repelled by the drawings, drawings and descriptions of the beginning of XIX century.

When building even used authentic materials and techniques of the era. A separate objective was to aging of the scenery, to which, according to Fisk, it took much time and effort, and how their construction. In addition, it was necessary to take into account that the survey will be used in the natural world — the authors thought through in advance what will be illuminated at different times of the day. Fisk This plan helps the application Sun Seeker, allowing to identify and predict the light conditions.

Also, at the request of Lubezki, Fisk made a few windows in buildings more than they usually were in the forts of the XIX century, and used leaded glass, has increased transparency. Boat Hunters, too, was created with an eye on maximum reliability. However, under the authentic shell ship it had an aluminum frame and a modern engine.

Decoration ruined church in stages of sleep was made to the warehouse at Calgary. She was inspired by Romanesque churches and of «Andrei Rublev» Tarkovsky. In view of the limited time the building was built of large blocks of styrofoam. This same material was made bell. Style frescoes based on old Russian painting and mixed with scenes of the conquest era.

We should also mention one of the most unusual objects created for the «Survivor» — a mountain of buffalo skulls. This symbol of destruction of indigenous cultures of America and the wider — the death of human nature under pressure, there was only in the later stages of preparation.

And Iñárritu wanted to make a mountain of human skulls, but Fisk showed him a picture of a buffalo skull, and the director considers that it is no less creepy way. However, because of the tight schedule we had to abandon the idea of ​​a mountain out of 10 thousands of real skulls and confine wooden rail and stile 150 of styrofoam dummies.

By the way, just in case reassure zoozaschitnikov: during filming no animal has suffered, and all the dead animals in the scene are not real and were made by hand. This also applies eaten buffalo and spotted horse inside which slept DiCaprio. The latter is actually «play» two «horse»: on one character away from the pursuing Indians, the other is placed on the night. Animal and his insides were made of latex.

The costumes, which were created by artist Jacqueline West («The New World»), have also been developed in full compliance period. Each element — from moccasins and hats to coats and fur coats — was sewn and zafakturen on historical drawings and descriptions. At the same time due to heavy wear in difficult conditions most actors do six copies of each suit, while DiCaprio was all of twenty, including several options soaked fur coats, which in principle do not dry out.

«Survivor» is the second collaboration experience Inarritu and double Oscar-winning operator Emmanuel Lubezki. Last admits that the shooting changed his life, becoming «the most severe and difficult test, with whom he had ever come across.» However, difficulties were largely a consequence of extremism authors. Apparently, following the example of «Barry Lyndon» by Stanley Kubrick, and Inarritu Lubezki we decided to shoot a picture of life in the era of doelektricheskuyu, limited only by the natural light of the sun, campfires and candles.

In addition, the chronological order of the work does not allow you to shoot one scene in different light conditions — pictures simply can not be mounted. However, Lubezki believes that the rejection of the spotlights in part make life easier for the team, as eliminate the need to carry their equipment, which, given the remoteness of locations, it would be really difficult.

Initially, «Survivor» was planned to shoot as a «figure» and on film. Lubezki wanted to do some combination of 35-mm and 65-mm format. But in the course of work because of the logistical problems of the film refused. The operator is mainly used three cameras ARRI: Alexa XT, Alexa XT M and Alexa 65. The first model was used with a telescopic crane and stedikamom. XT M was the primary when shooting handheld. Large-format 65 Alexa, which appeared just in the midst of filming, thought to use only for the general panorama of plans, but in the end it worked out about a tenth of the picture.

Reference for Inarritu and Lubezki epic paintings were also taken in the wild, such as «Fitzcarraldo» Werner Herzog’s «Apocalypse Now,» Francis Ford Coppola, «Dersu Uzala» Akira Kurosawa and «Andrei Rublev» Tarkovsky. Creativity latter, obviously, was generally an important reference point for the Iñárritu that is felt in the smooth rhythm of the narrative, and in the contemplation chamber, and poetizatsii nature and abundance of Christian symbolism, and in some literal quotes.

«Stalker» and «Survivor»

«Ivan’s Childhood» and «Survivor»

«Mirror» and «Survivor»

«Nostalgia» and «Survivor»

«Ivan’s Childhood» and «Survivor»

«Ivan’s Childhood» and «Survivor»

The visual of the picture is made in the typical style of Lubezki very familiar to anyone who has seen the «Birdman» and his collaborations with Alfonso Cuarón («Children of Men», «Gravity») and Terrence Malick («Tree of Life», «Knight of Cups» ). The operator often makes long panned shots taken wide-angle (usually 14 mm, at least — 12 mm and 16 mm Alexa XT and Alexa XT M; 24 mm and 28 mm — to Alexa 65) that gives the image at the same time realistic and ambitious. The camera is constantly balancing between objective and subjective. For example, in the scene of the attack on the camp of the Indian hunters is that the viewer alternately impassive bystander, the unwitting participant.

Visual refrains film highlights one of the key conflicts — the general plans of nature and super plans of actors. Sometimes the overall and close-up face deliberately. Especially noteworthy is one of these transitions, resulting partly accidental. The camera was so close to the face DiCaprio that optics fogged his breath. On installation of the plan put specific frame with clouds. Also interesting transitions from large to general plans and vice versa within one frame. A striking example — the scene of the hero DiCaprio escape from the Indians on the river.

Randomly we get the close-ups in which the camera is close to the actor in the Extreme Close to 10 cm. Lubezki as an experiment using 14-mm optics with two diopters, distort the image on the edges. The effect is so pleased with the operator that it eventually repeated in the film three times, when it was necessary to show the frontier state of the hero when he discovers dead son when getting out of the horse (metaphorically reborn), and in the finale, when DiCaprio, breaking the «fourth wall» appeals to the viewer.

Although Inarritu essentially declared the rejection of the use of chromakeying and visual effects, some scenes would have been simply impossible without the graphics. First of all, it concerns the episode with the grizzly bear attack. For its creation the authors talked to zoologists and dozens have looked terrible battle video bears and people. We stopped at the movie in which an animal in the zoo attack lands him in an aviary poor fellow.

This documentary shot once again convinced the authors that the scene should be filmed like a single frame (simulated in the «Birdman»). Firstly, it provides a realistic. According to Emmanuel Lubezki similar scenes in other movies are created using animatronics and gluing, showing only fragments of real animals, which reduces the degree of credibility. Second, a single frame, creating a sense of continuity, increases stress.

In the study, the formulation and testing of the choreography of predator and prey have stuntmen took several months. On the landing scene is done using the cables that move DiCaprio and stunt actor who seized where assumed injured paws and bites. Trees, in which the actor enters with a flourish, were made of rubber and zafaktureny. In the post-production studio specialists ILM removed and replaced cables stuntman animated beast.

There were useful in the development of the company’s invoices, namely the image of fur used in the «Warcraft» Duncan Jones. This should take into account the changing light on the wet wool. If we talk about the software, the ILM worked with Zeno for modeling, Maya for animation and RenderMan Pixar for rendering. In addition to bear, with the help of charts were created rushing herd of buffalo, the fall of the hero and the horse off a cliff, and the flying comet.

Finally, one more episode, which can not go past — avalanche behind DiCaprio. There has not been used graphics, as you might think. In order to cause an avalanche on the slopes by helicopter was dropped explosives. Of course, this can be done only once, that is at the disposal of the group had only one double. The challenge was to achieve synchronicity actions of many people, distant from each other: the crew, the actor’s faces and help the team in the helicopter.

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