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[:RU]King Decebal[:]

[:RU]Statue of Decebal (Dechebela) on the Danube River, Romania. It is «the largest face of Europe.» The person it belongs to Dacian commander Detsebal, reaches a height of 40 meters and is Europe’s largest sculpture carved from a monolithic rock. Antiques lovers will be disappointed: this statue younger than us, it was built in 2004 by the 12 sculptures that are almost 10 years of grind of the rock. The statue rises above the waters of the Danube and is perfectly visible even from Serbia.

Here’s a little story about it:

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Rich was the country Dacians who lived in the ancient land in the Carpathian Mountains between the rivers Danube and Tisza. On the fertile fields grow wheat, barley, flax, hemp; meadows grazed large herds; in the mountains and rivers of gold mined. But little of this wealth battered the share of simple peasants. For generations, they lived in small fenced stockade villages in cramped wooden or reed huts built on poles and covered with straw or reeds. It was kept rough clay utensils, simple wooden plows and other tools; here they buried the ashes of their ancestors burned …

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The rich and powerful were the tribal leaders and know Dacian, worn in contrast to the common people tall felt hats. Built hardly poor, inaccessible cliffs towered on their locks — high square towers, built of stone slabs, wooden beams fastened, enclosed by crenellated walls and ramparts. And inside these castles kept expensive weapons, glass and bronze vessels, jewelry, acquired from the Greek and Roman merchants in exchange for bread, leather and slaves …
In the end I century BC. e. He appeared in Dacia talented commander Decebal. Backed by people dissatisfied with the dominance of the nobility, he tried to create a strong, unified state. Only united, could confront the Dacians the Romans, who had seized all the areas on the left bank of the Danube. More and more merchants penetrated in the Roman Dacia. And for merchants used to come to the country and the Roman legions. It was necessary to gather all forces to defend freedom.

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The war with the Romans had already started when the predecessor of Decebalus king Diurpanee. The whole year there were fights between the Romans and Dacians. Finally, the Roman army Dacian drove the Danube and began to cross the land of the enemy.

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Then something Diurpaney, unable to continue the fight, gave his power at the Decebal. The new leader, began to buy time, the negotiations, however, became actively prepare for war. He managed for a time to enforce obedience to know and raise discipline in the army. However, he urged the neighboring tribes and Bastarnae Roxolani an alliance with him. With carts, families, herds, household goods they went to settle on land that Decebal promised to win for them the Romans. He sent envoys to many families dependent on Rome. Under the influence of negotiations with Detsebal these tribes have refused to give the Romans an auxiliary cavalry and then rebelled against the Roman dominions.

When you first encounter with the Roman army won a brilliant victory over the Dacians. The commander of the Romans killed in battle; camp was captured fighting vehicles; almost a legion and some auxiliary parts were broken, and — what was considered the greatest shame for Rome — the banner of the Legion fell into enemy hands. In the south of Dobrogea in Adamklisse, still stands erected by the Romans in the memory of the fallen in the battle monument on which are written their names.

But Decebal could not fully exploit the victory. Dacian know their disobedience weakened his army. And in the next battle, with Tape, Dacians were put to flight. The victory of the Romans opened the way for them to Dacian capital — sarmizegetusa. Fearing for her fate, Decebal begged the world. His brother came to Rome, the Romans brought the captured guns and prisoners, and falling on his knees before the emperor, received the crown from his hands. So Decebal pleaded dependent on the Roman state. At the cost of humiliation, he won time and even bargain with Domitian annual cash assistance. Rome, too, needed a respite: nearly eight years he led the war against the rebels Germanic tribes.
Decebal closely followed the events in preparation for a new war. His agents acted in the Roman army in the provinces, including neighboring tribes. They skillfully sought out dissatisfied, promised them shelter and protection in Dacia Dacian king. Especially willingly took it deserted Roman soldiers, artisans, builders, engineers, who knew a lot about the construction of military vehicles and fortresses. Gradually Decebal led talks on an alliance with the neighboring tribes, argued that if they do not support it, then sooner or later become victims themselves insatiable Rome. Detsebal joined some Slavic tribes. He tried to negotiate with distant Parthia, the eternal rival of Rome.

Column of Trajan. Rome

In Rome, these actions were known Decebal. The government could not come to terms with the fact that the neighborhood with the Empire arose force, ready to enter into an alliance with all those who are dissatisfied with the Roman domination. War became inevitable. It broke out when the emperor Trajan became a zealous defender of the interests of the Roman slave-owners.
Proclaimed emperor Trajan immediately went to the Danube. For nearly a year he spent here in person watching the construction of new fortresses, bridges and roads in the mountainous regions of Moesia. By nine in the standing. Danube legions of troops, he added, resulting from Germany and from the East. In addition, two more were recruited new legions. Total, together with supporting troops, had accumulated about 200 thousand. Soldiers.
Finally, in the spring of 101 AD. e. Roman army, divided into two columns, crossed the Danube. West column commanded by the Emperor himself. He went to the Tape, the approaches to Sarmisegetuza.

Not yet reached the Tapas, the Romans heard the sounds of bent pipes Dacian and saw their military badges — a huge dragon with wolf heads.

Before the battle one of the tribes allied Dacians, Trajan sent a huge mushroom, on which was written, that the Romans should keep the peace and that is why they should retreat. But that did not stop the original letter of Trajan. Bloody battle ensued. Dhaka, armed, except for bows, curved sickle swords were especially terrible melee. They fought with unwavering courage, despising death. Many Romans fell in this battle.
After the battle, the Roman troops had to suspend the offensive. Gathering strength, the Romans at the same time sought to instill fear dakam: on occupied land, they destroyed the village inhabitants were taken away into slavery.
The Romans have always been famous not only as a ruthless conquerors, but as a deft diplomats. Now they are trying harder to ignite strife between Dacian nobles and set it against Detsebala.To kept in the camp Trajan people appeared in high felt hats and, kneeling down, assured him of his commitment and readiness to serve him.
After recovering from the previous battle, the Romans took a new offensive on the Tapu. Courageously defended the Dacians each vertex, slowly, with stubborn battles retreated. They went farther into the mountains, taking with them the Roman prisoners.
The situation has deteriorated sharply Dacian when suddenly auxiliary cavalry Romans hit them in the rear, and rushed to sarmizegetusa. Decebal; He is trying to gain time, to begin peace talks. But the Romans continued to move forward, destroying the fortress after fortress. More and more noble Dacian Decebalus leaves and ran to Trajan.

The last hope of the chief Dacian laid on the troops stationed at the fortress Apulum, but here he was defeated. The road to the capital was open. Detsebal had to accept any peace terms.

He himself came to the tent of Trajan. Throwing aside his long straight sword — a sign of royal power, he fell to his knees. Decebal admitted defeat and asked for leniency. In his presence, the garrison surrendered Sarmisegetusa, which was now divided into the Roman camp. Under the peace treaty Dacians obliged to surrender their weapons and military vehicles, demolish fortifications, who fled to them to give craftsmen and soldiers do not take more defectors and always have in common with the Roman people, friends and foes. To monitor the implementation of these conditions in the country have remained the Roman armies.

Dacian war. II century AD

To be able to quickly throw in reinforcements Dacia, Trajan ordered to build a fortress near the Drobeta stone bridge over the Danube. There are many more decades later, this bridge caused surprise and delight travelers. He was a kilometer long, it was supported by 20 stone pillars, the height of the 28 m and a width of 15 m. They are spaced 50 m and connected by arches, which was made flooring.

However, Decebal not consider himself definitively defeated. He fulfilled all the conditions of the peace treaty to get rid of the Roman troops. But as soon as they left the country again Decebal ordered to rebuild the castle and to build war machines. He planned a surprise attack on the Romans, taking them by surprise.
Having collected a considerable force, Decebal in June 105 AD. e. He stormed the Roman fortifications. At the same time Sarmisegetuza Roman camp was captured and killed the garrison. However, the decisive assault was unsuccessful. Break into Roman territory dakam failed. Traian quickly arrived with reinforcements. He respectfully greeted the ambassadors on his Dacian supporters. Decebal knew it was the first defeat prejudge the outcome of the war. He knew that this time Traian will not rest until they turn into a Roman province of Dacia.

Again, two columns Roman army reached for sarmizegetusa. Along the way, it is almost unopposed. Hastily built a fortress for a long time could not defend himself. Population, taking their property, took further into the mountains. But this time the capital is well prepared for the defense. Until Tapas stretched ramparts, towers and moats. Every rock and hill Dacians turned into a fortress. The city had procured huge stocks of food and gold. His own great treasures Decebal buried in the river bed at the walls of the palace.

Long siege lasted Sarmisegetuza. From the west and east of the Roman army besieged it, gradually everything already closing his ring. Built siege buildings, dug trenches. That Dacians undertook raids, the Romans tried to storm the city. And one and the other side the losses were very high. More and more enemy heads exhibited on pillars in the Roman camp and the capital of the Dacian.

Decebal expected to hold out until the winter cold, hoping the cold will force the Romans to raise the siege. But treason penetrated into the ranks of his army. Several noble Dacian Trajan secretly promised to reveal to him the eastern gate of the capital. To divert attention, Trajan ordered the Western Army at the appointed hour to storm the city. After fierce fighting, it took possession of advanced fortifications. At the same time let the traitors of the Romans to the city on the opposite side.
Anger and despair took possession of the Dacians, when they saw the enemy in its capital. They decided not to give the city into the hands of the winners and do not give up living. Burning torch was thrown into the building of the royal palace. Behind him burned wooden houses Sarmisegetuza. In the main square of Dhaka put a large pot of poison. Hundreds of residents of the capital held out his cup of fatal drink. Already a lot of corpses lay around the boiler, but came all the new crowd who prefer death to slavery. Father kept dying son, ready to immediately follow. Mother tray cup of poison to the child, and then she saw.

Roman cavalry attacked the rearguard of the army Dacian

Under sounds of solemn music led army entered Trajan in deserted city. Here, among the smoking ruins and the bodies of their compatriots, noble traitors fell to her knees and was graciously accepted by the winner. One of the closest associates of Decebal told where his hidden treasure. They were removed from the river bed and taken to the tent of Trajan. This gold permanently enriched the Roman coffers. In only one temple of Jupiter Traian donated 50 million. Sesterces.

But the war was not yet over. Decebal have managed to divert part of the Dacian in mountain forests. From there, they continued to attack the Roman troops. Step by step they oppress the Romans. The situation was almost hopeless Dacian, when the Romans took the fortress Apulum that protects access to the north-east, the wildest part of the country. There’s still kept Dacian guerrillas.

In the deep woods gathered remnants of the defeated forces. With the latest speech he addressed them Decebal. He said goodbye to his loyal companions and sent them away. Most had no hope, and many turned to the last resort — death. Some rushed to the sword, others asked friends to save them from the blow of a dagger shame of slavery. Some sought refuge in the neighboring tribes to start a difficult, harsh, but free life.

However, treason penetrated into the last refuge of the vanquished. Some notable Dacians who followed Detsebal decided to
win the pleasure of Trajan, issuing their leader. After the triumph of the emperor would be incomplete if his chariot will not go in chains once formidable enemy. Izveschёnnye traitors, Roman troops blocked Detsebal retreat. Few of his companions were killed, finally, it fell under the horse, pierced with a spear. Decebal down to the roots of high spruce. Even the Roman soldiers reached out to grab it. Quick movement snatching the dagger, he cut his throat. His head and right hand were delivered to the emperor and to put the pillars of the soldiers.

The war ended. Dacia, converted to the province was incorporated into the Roman Empire.

Because of the huge production Dacian army were given rich rewards. Therefore the occasion of Dacian triumph of Trajan in Rome gave a 123-day holiday. In the games attended by 11 000 animals and 10,000 gladiators. The Senate agreed to the funds taken from production, to erect a monument in honor of the winner — column. Five years it was constructed under the supervision of the Greek Apollodorus and preserved until now. It reaches a height of 40m. All of it is covered with reliefs of military events, and is surmounted by a statue of Trajan. The ashes of the emperor was later buried at the bottom of this column.

Conquered Dacians, like all provincials were levied taxes. Part of the land was transferred to the Roman colonists and veterans. Placed in camps and forts all over the country, the soldiers had to observe the order and suppress the movement of the discontented.
But the people have not forgotten either the former freedom, nor fought for her Decebal. Every now and then invaded the country to evict beyond it free Dacians. They always met sympathy and support of their fellow tribesmen. When in the III. Roman state began to weaken, in Dacia started the liberation movement. By dakam joined by other tribes …

Powerless to deal with them, the Romans in the middle of the III. We were forced to leave Dacia.

It was the first province to throw off the yoke of the hated Roman.

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