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[:RU]As the film «Back to the Future»[:]

[:RU]Today, October 21 Marty McFly should fly from the past to save the space-time continuum, or celebrate with us the thirtieth anniversary of the film «Back to the Future» and the birth of the famous trilogy about time travel and the American schoolboy mad scientist. These movies have already come into the treasury of world cinema, and many of the readers of the community certainly reviewed all of the even in the heyday of pirated video.

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But let’s find out how the idea of ​​the film, and the difficulties encountered by its creators when shooting.

Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale have come up with a story about a schoolboy and a time machine long before 1985, when the screens out one of the finest adventure movies.

Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale met in film school at USC, when we were there in the sixties, intending to become a Hollywood screenwriter. Later, when friends were already working on the tinsel town (Zemeckis has managed to remove a couple of debut films, and Gail — write scripts for them), Bob has laid the foundation of the story itself, which later resulted in the famous trilogy, to conquer the world. Gale struck when after a premiere made in conjunction with Zemeckis film «Used Cars» (1980) he came to St. Louis to visit her parents. There, in the basement of dismantling the old stuff, Bob came across a photo album of his father, who had never seen before.

Bob Gale: «My father is not particularly fond of talking about his youth, and for me it was a huge surprise when I came once to his old photo album, and learned that he was president of the senior class. Before, I did not know. I thought about the president of his class, which almost did not communicate, and I thought if I was in the same class with her ​​father — would we be friends? That’s when I came up with this story about a schoolboy who falls into the past, and met there with his parents. «

In September 1980, we signed a contract for friends script with «Columbia Pictures», and set to work.

Zemeckis and Gale finished the first draft of the script in February 1981 — and from the very beginning faced with incomprehension. In the early 80’s the most cash youth films («Thoughtless Times at Ridgemont High,» «Porky») were films with a rather stern-rated «18» — with eroticism, alcohol and violence, and absolutely zero sci-fi component. The author of «Back to the Future» was told that their film «too childish» that most of the target audience will leave it unattended, because it «a little stiffness.»

Zemeckis Gail worked hard to rewrite the script twice, but it was all in vain: those wishing to invest money in it and was not. But everything changed in an instant when, in 1984, came the resounding success «Romancing the Stone,» Zemeckis filmed thanks to the patronage of Michael Douglas, already high value on the tinsel town. Then suddenly all the producers wanted to make a «Back to the Future,» and filled with a sincere belief in success. But Zemeckis decided to return it to the producer, who from the outset appreciated the scenario where all the other rejected — to Spielberg. After Stephen back in 1981, I was delighted with the genuine history, and really wanted to bring it to the screen. That is why Zemeckis eventually chose him.

At the final stage, the script has undergone revision by the executive producer Sidney Scheinberg: he changed the name of his mother Marty Meg to Lorraine (in honor of his beloved wife, Lorraine Gary) and insisted that the pet Doc Brown instead of chimpanzees (!) Was a dog . Nickname Einstein, however, remain unchanged. But one of the requirements Scheinberg responded firm refusal: call the film «Alien from Pluto.» Sidney explained his proposal by the fact that earlier in rent is not yet out-grossing film with the word «future». Spielberg and Zemeckis called his idea «ridiculous» and Scheinberg finally agreed that the breccia stupidity.

The project was very lucky with the actors — perhaps impossible to imagine in place Marty McFly someone other than George Michael. Fox, and the place of Dr. Brown’s — someone other than Christopher Lloyd. All perfectly got used to their images.

The candidacy of Christopher Lloyd as Dr. Emmett Brown was offered a producer Neil Canton, who has worked with Christopher in 84th on the film «The Adventures of Boukari Banzai Across the Eighth Dimension». Lloyd first turned down the role, but changed his mind as soon read the script. The actor copied his character with his mop of disheveled white hair and sweeping movements with the famous conductor Leopold Stokowski. Doc Brown is moving as if he were conducting an orchestra visible only to him. Plus — in Brown has something of Einstein, moreover, that scenario it — crazy genius. He says the word «GW» as «Dzhigavatt» — just as it said a physicist when Zemeckis and Gale consulted with him about the scientific component of the plot.

Crispin Glover played the role of an ideal father Marty — George McFly. Most of the film he improvised, and, according to Zemeckis, as entered into the role of self-doubt, scattered «botany», which to him «could barely get through.» Whatever it was, the image turned out just perfect.

It was a good and Lea Thompson in the role of a young Lorraine — romantic, charming and innocent, she blended in perfectly coined Gale and Zemeckis image. Leah got into «Back to the Future» because of the comedy «Out of Control» (1984), in which she starred with Eric Stoltz, one of the favorites for the role of Marty McFly.

On the role of Biff Tannen first took JJ Cohen, but he seemed to Zemeckis’ insufficiently tough guy. » So in the end he established himself as one of the cronies Tannen, and the role of «bad guy» went to Thomas F. Wilson, an unknown young actor, who has previously appeared only in a small role in the television series «Knight Rider.» Brilliantly performed the role of bullying husky Biff became his breakthrough.

But the protagonist of a big problem. It turned out that Michael J. Fox, who in the opinion of the authors of the film is best suited for the role of Marty McFly (him Zemeckis met by chance, when he starred in «wolf», and immediately pointed him as the candidate number one), was under contract for production the popular TV series «Family Ties,» with great success coming out on NBC for seven seasons from 1982 to 1989. And Michael played in this series, one of the main roles. It was a huge issue — series producer David Goldberg and would not hear of that demanded to release a television actor to work on a feature film for several months.

Actually, he was confident that the rating of the show rests primarily on Fox. Despite the eagerness of Michael to appear in «Back to the Future» from his candidacy rejected. After that Zemeckis and Spielberg had a lot of screen tests for the role of Marty. Shooting continuously postponed due to the fact that Zemeckis could not determine the choice of the young actor, who will play a major role. Meanwhile, the situation is tense, since the output of the film have planned for May 1985, and yet in the fall of ’84 shooting has not even begun. However, because of the difficulty of production release date later postponed twice.

In the end, chose two young candidates, the best performance at the tests — Thomas Howell (left) removes previously in Spielberg’s «ET» in the role of Tyler, and Coppola in «rogue» as Poniboya and Eric Stoltz, very the popular young actor from the television. When the director of the Universal looked their samples, he said: «Take Stolz. I’m so confident that he can handle it, that if something goes wrong — I’ll give you a chance to re-shoot it all over again with another actor. «Finally, work on the film began.

Robert Zemeckis: «Stolz — a great actor. He played great, better and wish it was impossible. But with each new double and I clearly understood that Eric — not the Marty McFly, we came up with Bob, when we wrote the script. It was not a shadow of humor, which had luchitsya Marty. Eric was monstrous, murderous dramatic. Hereby Marty could only be Michael J. Fox. He did not even need to play — it just by itself was the same as our fictional hero. Eric hated skateboard — and Michael rode on him since childhood … I took not the easiest decision to stop working with Stolz after about a month after the start of work. It cost us $ 3 million. «

Reshoots made Stoltz scenes added to break the bank to the 14 million budget … That was the price of a mistake made by Gale, Zemeckis and Spielberg at the stage of casting.

Michael J. Fox from the beginning, from the moment he read the script, expressed a great desire to work with Zemeckis on «Back to the Future», even though its wholly employment. So he said, «I am willing to work day and night, just take me to this film.»

Then, in ’84, it was abandoned because of the complete inability to carve out at least a little time in his busy shooting schedule. But when after the dismissal Stolz project «Back to the Future» was hanging over the abyss, it was nevertheless decided to include in the work of Michael. The actor agreed to work overtime. Marty McFly was literally a copy of himself …

Michael immediately involved in the work, making all the scenes shot earlier with Stolz, in just two weeks. Finally, work on the film went underway. Fox worked for wear while participating in the filming of the evening and daytime scenes were shot at the weekend.

The director of the prolonged night shifts has been constantly in the «half-asleep» state. But nobody complained — all were under the charm of the unique atmosphere of the 50s …

The original version of the protagonist engaged in video piracy, and in the past, he moved with the help of a time machine, made of … refrigerator! Then the idea of ​​a fridge decided to give: Zemeckis was afraid that children would climb into a refrigerator inspired by the film. It should be noted, he was right: the film made an unforgettable impression …

When the writers turned to the idea of ​​the time machine in the form of a car, they first thought it must be some all-terrain vehicle on tracks, which could move in time, where there was no road. DeLorean appeared thanks to pure chance.

Zemeckis came up with a scene in which farming family in the fifties takes a time machine for a flying saucer, and an original low-volume sports car DMC-12 DeLorean with its rising up the doors and shiny skin stainless steel look quite futuristic, to pass for unearthly technique in the eyes of «ordinary Americans «.

DeLorean DMC-12 — actually existing sports cars manufactured from 1981 to 1983. The design of the car was so unusual for the time, that confer him more «futuristic» for the film almost did not have to. Is that hitched a «nuclear reactor», or rather the old man body component Dodge Polaris, and hung aviadetalyami found in a landfill. Total filmmakers took three copies of DeLorean, each of whom worked on the set of 100%.

To create the effect of frost have just returned from a tour of the car used was nitrogen — DeLorean literally frozen. Fire the traces left by the car sped away, — the usual spilled fuel, which ignited manually. The filmmakers decided to use these relatively cheap effects, but has long been considered a version with stretch and contract like a rubber band, DeLorean. But as a result of such a trick refused: it was expensive to do for a long time, and today it certainly would look hopelessly outdated.

«Adults» machine not without toy doubles. The filmmakers have created several thumbnail layouts DeLorean. They are suspended in the air in a special sleeve, plan on a blue screen, the place which is then superimposed the desired video clips. The same technique was used later on the set the second and third parts of the trilogy — all flying cars and trains were duplicated in the toy format with which filmmakers work much more convenient.

Contemporary moviegoers will probably be hard to believe, but the whole picture was used only 32 visual effects that the company was engaged in ILM. For comparison, in «The Avengers» in 2200 visual effects, «Guardians of the Galaxy» 2750. Yes, it was a time when mainstream Hollywood movie would go exclusively to the story and the actors, and not in the picture.

Moving in time caused a lot of disputes with friends. Start with the fact that it required enormous energy (1.21 GW), and for some time quite seriously discussed the idea that it was necessary to move … to produce a nuclear explosion! Doc and Marty for that had to go to Nevada on military training ground. But when it became clear that the shooting scene from a nuclear explosion would have cost one million dollars (for the ’84 it was an exorbitant amount), Gale and Zemeckis decided to come up with something completely different, less costly. And so was born the idea of ​​lightning — the action does not go beyond Hill Valley, and also appeared in an episode of the clock, symbolizing time. It was a very good idea, and that it was embodied on the screen in glorious climactic scene.

One of the biggest items of expenditure were not the toys and the triple «charged» DeLorean, and scenery. The entire town of Hill Valley is not related to any of the really existing settlements and has been created in an open pavilion of film studio Universal. Millions of dollars are spent on it to create the scenery of the central square with all the buildings provided by the script. In the first part of the brand new facades were first used for the filming of the scenes that took place in the 1950s. Only toward the end of shooting period decorations specially old and to show now, that is the middle of the 1980s.

Artist painting Lawrence Paul brilliantly recreated the atmosphere of the 50’s: for this he had to learn a few hundred photographs of the time and see more than a dozen films made in those years. In «Back to the Future» has a huge number of absolutely authentic details. Paul deliberately stepped back a little further into the past than the fifties, climbing nearly to the end of the forties, because the real fifties still were not as archaic. Easy exaggeration film went to the benefit, enhance the effect of immersion in the past.

April 20 shooting ended successfully, but, of course, and there was nothing to think about how to release the film in May. The premiere was postponed to August 85 th. But when the film showed the test group, to preview, according to producer Frank Marshall, «the audience jumped up to the ceiling.» In recognition of the same Marshall, «this preview, he could not remember.» The prime minister was appointed on July 3. To meet the deadline, editors and voice acting professionals working around the clock.

At the stage of assembly were cut some scenes — such as the one in which Marty looks like Lorraine debit in the exam, and one in which George McFly stuck in a phone booth. Zemeckis almost cut out and the scene with rock performances March, but test audiences liked the scene so that he decided to leave it — as it turned out, did the right thing. When the company Lucas Industrial Light & Magic completed to produce special effects (there were only 32 in the whole movie), before the premiere stayed one week …

Music — a real gem of a film. Brilliantly gifted composer Alan Silvestri, which Zemeckis has just worked on the film «Romancing the Stone», in «Back to the Future» just surpassed himself: the soundtrack, no doubt, has become one of the most important components of the overall charming atmosphere. 98 people made up a grand orchestra, conducted by Alan — this composition at Universal Studios had not collected. Later, Alan worked with Zemeckis on almost all of its new projects. Music, despite the small scale of the events, was epic and impressive — Silvestri deliberately made the soundtrack so heaped up, especially to impress Spielberg, who was not fond of the soundtrack of «Romancing the Stone». Silvestri hear the music to the «Back to the Future», Spielberg was forced to admit that Alan — unusually gifted composer.

Yet on the day of the authors of «Back to the Future» assailed by doubts about the success of their creations. Start with the fact that Michael J. Fox was not able to participate in the advertising picture (all of the same continuous shooting to «family ties», but this time in London). Besides, Gale was seriously embarrassed offers Studio flippant slogan: «My mom fell in love with me.» But when the film was released in 1200 theaters across North America, ranging from 3 July 1985 and for the next 11 (!) Weeks, he has been the absolute leader of hire in the United States.

Just one week ahead of his published in the August comedy with Chevy Chase «European Vacation» and then «Back to the Future» took the lead again. The success was striking. In America alone, the film grossed 210 million (twice the wildest expectations), and brought the world hire as many as 380 million dollars. It was a megahit on a planetary scale, and the most popular movie of the world in 1985.

However, no award can not be compared with national recognition and love, which found the picture. In various polls, «Back to the Future» is still regularly ranked in the list of the best science fiction films and comedies. And no wonder — the characters whose names have long been a household, a great sense of humor, a cool soundtrack, the style never lost its topicality fathers and children, and of the role played by the choice of what we do in my life — all this makes » Back to the future «one of the best representatives of their genre. And I think that if someone invents a time machine go into the future 30 years from now, then and there, «Back to the Future» will still love and remember.

Taken from dubikvit in how to shoot «Back to the Future»

I also made a small contribution to the preservation of the memory of one of the main characters in the film. This DeLorean DMC-12 is in the car museum, which is on the territory of the Sochi race track, that’s a report about it.

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