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[:RU]Rouen Cathedral, and not only[:]

[:RU]About Rouen me before it was known to visit the two main points: there were burned Joan of Arc, and there is the Cathedral, which inspired a series of paintings by Monet — Cathedral at different times in different weather in different lighting conditions. It is already enough to drive into town for a few hours. Rouen in the end we liked — there are so many well-preserved half-timbered houses and medieval very beautiful historic center. Already understand that here it is necessary to go back and better in this city aside a whole day or even two.

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I will start with the cathedral of Rouen, as it was very interesting to look at it, bumping into various museums dedicated to him on the paintings of Monet.

Only Monet could turn into a huge mass of limestone pure vibration of light. Consistently displaying variable lighting from dawn to dusk, he wrote fifty species of majestic Gothic facade dissolves into light. «The sooner promoted my work, the harder it is to show what I feel. All night I had nightmares: the cathedral fell on me, it was something blue, then pink, then yellow. »

In February 1892 Monet rented a small room for the first time in front of the cathedral. In this and the following year he wrote the western facade of the cathedral from three points of view that differ only slightly from each other.

After returning from Rouen Monet paintings left unpacked. If he pulls out one of them, just to continue to work on it. Expected by all Rouen series will be presented only in 1895. Pictures occupy a room and were posted on the plan Monnet, first gray series — a huge dark mass, which is gradually becoming more and more lighter, then the white series, quietly passing on a weak flicker, to ever increasing play of light, reaching its climax in the paintings rainbow series ; and then a series of blue where the light is gradually relaxed in blue, melting as bright heavenly vision

1. cloudy effect 2. 3. in the light of the morning sun risen, 4. in the light of the rising sun, 5. the effect of the sun, the end of the day, 6 the morning sun, blue harmony, noon 7. 8. noon

The artist wants to twenty paintings series «Cathedrals» sold not one, but a whole lot — despite the fact that each of them is estimated at 15,000 francs!

«Cathedral in Rouen» cause controversy, though Cezanne, Pissarro and Clemenceau accept them with enthusiasm. Clemenceau even wrote an article entitled «The Revolution of the cathedrals» and says that «immovable object with great force emphasizes the movement of light.»

Against the wishes of Monet’s «Rouen Cathedrals» were sold to different persons. «Cathedral in Rouen» influenced many artists of the XX century. French artist Fautrir said that this series has radically changed the way of thinking of several generations of artists.

Cathedral posed and other artists

William Turner

Inside — Gothic Beauty

But back to the city. It became the capital of the Duchy of Normandy after the year 911 Viking leader Rollo received from King Charles the Simple in his possession of the territory corresponding to the modern region of Upper Normandy. According to the concepts of the Carolingian Rollo was granted the status of Count of Rouen

In 949, the Duke of Normandy, Richard, «Fearless», during the siege of Rouen fought with united forces King Louis IV, Emperor Otto the Great Germans and Count of Flanders. The victory of the Duke of decisive importance for the future of Normandy. Already since the era of the Norman city of Rouen was the port

Duke of Normandy as his residence, in most cases preferred to Rouen. In 1150 he received Rouen municipal charter; City council ruled «Hundred peers’ and residents joined together in a professional corporation and the brotherhood of artists.

King Philip II Augustus of France took Rouen June 24, 1204 after a 40-day siege. In 1204, the entire Normandy was attached to the lands of the King of France.

In July, 1348 in Rouen came pandemic plague «Black Death.» In 1382 the city happened uprising Garel, ruthlessly suppressed by the royal troops. The authorities have raised taxes and Rouen judge canceled the privilege of trade on the Seine.

In the era of the Hundred Years War in 1419 Rouen was occupied by the troops of King Henry V, who joined Normandy to the lands of the English Crown. Henry V died in 1422, and died the same year, the King of France Charles VI. Brother Henry became regent of France, and tried to get Rouen land, what has succeeded in part.

It was tried and executed Rouen Joan of Arc. May 30, 1431 she was sent to the fire Rouen executioner Geoffroy Terazh. In the same year the young Henry VI of the House of Lancaster was crowned king of France in Paris and England, after which he came to Rouen, where he welcomed the noisy crowd of folk. The King of France Rouen returned to the French crown in 1449.

Ruan served as the religious center of northern France, there are many churches

The main contribution to the economic well-being of Rouen late 15th century, made cloth shops, as well as silk-weaving studio and Metallurgy.

Since the 1530’s the population of Rouen joined the movement and became the Protestant Reformation, they were in a minority position. In the 1560s in Rouen exacerbated divisions between Catholic and Protestant communities.

Catholics took Fort St. Catherine, dominate the city. Both camps have resorted to means of terror. Rouen authorities appealed to the Queen of England, who sent troops to support the protesters. So the British occupied the Le Havre. October 26, 1562 in Rouen entered the French royal troops plundered the city for three days.

During the First World War, it was located in Rouen British military base. During World War II, in spite of the heroic defense of Rouen was occupied by German troops from 9 June 1940 to 30 August 1944. During the defense in June 1940 in Rouen had a great fire, which destroyed the entire historic quarter between the cathedral and the River Seine. Other major damage to the city received during the bombing of the Allies Normandy from 1942 to 1944. Also during these air raids were greatly damaged by the Rouen Cathedral and the Palace of Justice. Later, from May 30 to June 5, 1944 bombing of Rouen Americans, and this week it went down in history as the «Red Week» from this bombing again burned in Rouen Cathedral and adjacent to the historic quarter.

After the war the city center was reconstructed and restored for 15 years

A landmark monument of the city is the large town clock (Gros-Horloge), symbolizing the power of Rouen. The mechanism of the astronomical clock tower dates back to the 14th century, and the dial is made ​​in the 16th century. The clock is set in the mansion, under which lies the Renaissance arch street rue du Gros-Horloge, and side to adjoin the Gothic tower-Belfort. On the double arrow indicates a single dial hour. In the upper window oval clock shows the day of the week and moon phase. Easter lamb on the Stamp panel at the top of the arch symbolizes the long tradition of textile business in Rouen.
The tower and the clock has been fully restored; works lasted from 1997 to December 2006.

In general, despite the fact that much has been recovered from the ruins, the city makes a very decent impression! And required to attend!

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